Find 3 peer reviewed articles not later than 2008 and find an extraction method how remove phthalates that are absorbed from nail polish and found in urine. Create a 6 slides presentation. This presentation needs to answer on the questions below:Is the method feasible to be completed at the university lab (not expensive and very hard materials are used, means find very simple materials)?Does the method take into account the chemistry of the phthalates?Does the method take into account safety of the proposed materials and the cost of the proposed materials?Include References with APA format of the at least 3 peer reviewed articles not later than 2008, which you used.“Exposed to Personal Care Products”
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of personal care product use on exposure
to potentially harmful compounds. Research has shown that exposure to phthalate compounds
can occur through use of personal care products. Exposures have also been linked to adverse
health effects. Participants in this study will be asked to discontinue use of a personal care
product and will collect their first morning urine samples every other day for one week.
Participants will also complete a short online survey about their personal care product use.
Phthalate compounds will then be quantitated in the samples. Participants in this study will be
drawn from Lynn University. Descriptive statistics will be tabulated for the personal care product
survey and for urinary phthalate concentrations. These include calculating means in addition to
correlational analysis between exposures and product frequency use.
Exposure to compounds such as phthalates can result from personal care product use (Guo &
Kannan, 2013). Phthalate compounds are typically added to products to dissolve perfumes, act as
lubricants, and decrease brittleness (Witorsch & Thomas, 2010). They are classified as endocrine
disruptors; they often mimic endogenous hormones in vivo leading to a variety of potential adverse
health effects. For example, exposures have been linked to male reproductive developmental defects
(Swan et al., 2005), preterm birth (Ferguson, McElrath, & Meeker, 2014), and decreased fecundity
(Smarr, Sundaram, Honda, Kannan, & Buck Louis, 2017) in humans. In light of potential risks,
efforts to reduce exposure are warranted. A previous research study indicated that exposures to
certain phthalates and parabens were reduced by up to half when switching to alternative products
(Harley et al., 2016). Given the multitude of personal care products on the market, the Environmental
Working Group’s SkinDeep Cosmetic Database lists over 74,000 products alone (2018), further
research into reducing exposure through adoption of alternative products is needed.
This study will look at the change in phthalate levels in an individual over a 7 day period when use
of a personal care product containing phthalates is stopped.
The objectives of this study are to answer the following research question:
Does personal care product use explain variation in measures of urinary exposure to potentially
harmful compounds?
Study Design and Methods
Lynn students will be used for this study, recruited from multiple Lynn courses in which the
instructor has agreed to allow recruitment in class and allow for 5-10 minutes of class time to
be dedicated to this study. In addition, recruitment will also take place from a table in Assaf
Academic Building or the Lynn Library. During recruitment, students will make an
appointment for a one-on-one meeting to begin the study.
This study will take place continuously but beginning during the 2019 J-term semester and
continuing into 2019 Spring. All subjects who agree to participate will be instructed on the
procedures for the experiment through a one-on-one meeting with a primary investigator or
research assistant.
One-on-one meetings for each participant will take 10-20 minutes with the completion of the
informed consent form (see Appendix A), receiving of instructions on participation, and taking
of a survey on product use (see Appendix B). At this point, each participant will be assigned a
randomly generated number that will link their survey with the urine samples they will provide.
Participation will continue over 7 days with an additional time commitment of 5-10 minutes.
During the one-on-one meeting, participants will be given four specimen jars and paper bags
which they will take home. They will be instructed to fill each jar with a urine sample of their
first morning void, tightly seal it, label with the date, and return it to the investigator in AS 103
following the process below:
Friday (Day 1) – Fill with first morning void; stop using personal care product
immediately after filling jar
Monday (Day 3) – Fill with first morning void
Wednesday (Day 5) – Fill with first morning void
Friday (Day 7) – Fill with first morning void
The specimens will be collected by principle investigator or research assistant during predetermined times in Assaf 103, based on room availability. The principle investigator will label
specimen with the same random number generated from the survey.
Samples will be stored in designated refrigerator in Assaf 103, which is locked and limited to
science faculty use.
The samples will then undergo a liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction (Buckley et al., 2012,
Harley et al., 2016) to remove phthalates of interest. These techniques take advantage of the
differences in the chemistry of the phthalates versus endogenous compounds in the urine. No
other compounds will be targeted for extraction. Analysis will take place using an optimized
high-pressure liquid chromatography separation with ultraviolet spectroscopy detection. The
chromatographic separation will separate different types of phthalates from one another and
determine identity of the compounds based on elution time with standards. The detection method
will allow for quantification of the phthalate compounds.
Analysis of the Study
Identity of phthalates in specimens will be performed by comparison of chromatographic
retention times with the retention times of standard phthalate compounds separated using the
same chromatographic procedure. Quantification of phthalates will be determined by calculating
the area under the chromatographic peaks. Descriptive statistics will be tabulated for all
measures. These include calculating means in addition to correlational analysis between
exposures and product frequency use.
Buckley, J.P., Palmieri, R.T., Matuszewski, J.M., Herring, A.H., Baird, D.D., Hartmann, K.E., and
Hoppin, J.A., (2012). Consumer product exposures associated with urinary phthalate levels in
pregnant women. Journal of Exposure Science Environment Epidemiology, 22(5): 485-475.
doi: 10.1038/jes.2012.33
Environmental Working Group. (2018). Skin Deep Cosmetics Database [database]. Retrieved from
Ferguson, K.K., McElrath, T.F., & Meeker, J.D. (2014). Environmental phthalate exposure and
preterm birth. JAMA Pediatrics, 168, 61-67. Doi: doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.3699
Guo,Y., & Kannan, K. (2013). A Survey of Phthalates and Parabens in Personal Care Products from
the United States and its Implications for Human Exposure. Environmental Science &
Technology, 47, 14442–14449. doi: 10.1021/es4042034
Harley, K.G., Kogut, K., Madrigal, D.S., Cardenas, M., Vera, I.A., Meza-Alfaro, G., … Parra, K.L.
(2016). Reducing Phthalate, Paraben, and Phenol Exposure from Personal Care Products in
Adolescent Girls: Findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study. Environmental Health
Perspectives, 124, 1600-1607. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1510514
Smarr, M.M., Sundaram, R., Honda, M., Kannan, K., & Buck Louis, G.M. (2017). Urinary
Concentrations of Parabens and Other Antimicrobial Chemicals and their Association with
Couples’ Fecundity. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125, 730-736. doi:
Swan, S.H., Main, K.M., Liu, F., Stewart, S.L., Kruse, R.L., Calafat, A.M., … the Study for Future
Families Research Team. Decrease in Anogenital Distance among Male Infants with Prenatal
Phthalate Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 1056-1061. doi:
Witorsch, R.J., & Thomas, J.A. (2010). Personal care products and endocrine disruption: A critical
review of the literature. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 40, 1-30. doi:
Internal Assessment
▪ What has been absorbed
▪ Blood, urine, sweat
Indirect Assessment
▪ External measures of exposure
▪ Water, air, food, products
▪ Institutional Review Boards:
1. Protecting the rights, welfare and well-being of human research participants, recruited to
participate in research
2. Ensuring compliance with relevant local, state and federal laws and regulations.
3. Employing the highest ethical standards for human research protections in all human subjects
research by adhering to the ethical principles outlined in the Belmont report
4. Giving guidance to ensure sound research design, scientific integrity, and determining if the research
contributes to generalizable knowledge and is worth exposing subjects to risk.
Respect for persons
 Individuals should be treated as autonomous agents
 Persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection
 Persons are treated in an ethical manner not only by respecting their decisions and protecting them
from harm, but also by making efforts to secure their well-being
 (1) Do no harm (2) maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms
 Fairness in distribution (select participants equitably)
 Who ought to receive the benefits of research and bear its burdens?
▪ Do not expose human subjects to potentially harmful chemicals
▪ Try and maintain same risk as a doctor’s visit
▪ What are you looking for?
▪ What types of samples?
▪ Any conditions of the sampling? i.e. specific groups
▪ Does it meet minimal risk?

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