This is your 5-6 page (double spaced) APA formatting paper dealing with the case study.
Instructions: Read the case and answer the questions
your instructor provided. It’s probably more useful to think of these as
detailed and thorough answers, rather than as one long, traditional essay.

See attachedCritical Thinking & Application Paper
Instructions: Read the case and answer the questions your instructor provided. It’s probably more useful to think of
these as detailed and thorough answers, rather than as one long, traditional essay.
PREGNANT ATHLETES
During her junior season, Fantasia Goodwin started every game for the Syracuse women‘s basketball
team. When Fantasia became pregnant during this season she debated with her decision whether to
tell her coach. A spokesperson for the Syracuse athletic department reports that ―when the athletic
department becomes aware that a student-athlete in a physical contact sport is pregnant, we pull her
immediately and refer her to our medical staff. This response may be motivated in part by concerns
for the student, fetus and the university‘s potential liability.
The American Gynecological and Obstetrics Association officially recommends that certain activities
be avoided during pregnancy, including ―contact sports, such as ice hockey, soccer, and basketball
[which] could result in harm to both you and your baby. Aside from contact, another source of
potential harm from athletic activity is the potential for fetal overheating. Fetal temperatures average
1 degree C above maternal readings, and a maternal temperature of 102.6 degrees has been identified
as a possible threshold for developing teratogenic and neural tube defects during the first trimester of
pregnancy. Despite these warnings, medical professionals point out that there is wide variability
among women and pregnancies, suggesting that in individual cases vigorous athletic activity may be
more or less dangerous.
Interestingly, Goodwin played the entire season pregnant until she delivered a healthy baby boy two
months after the season ended. Why would Goodwin play nearly an entire season of competitive
collegiate basketball knowing that she was pregnant and taking a substantial risk of miscarriage?
Goodwin herself has remained largely silent on this matter, but other elite athletes have been more
forthcoming. For some the reason is simple: they enjoy competing in their sport and believe that it is
possible to continue playing in relative safety. For scholarship athletes there may be a financial
incentive to keep pregnancy quiet and continue to compete. While Title IX of the Civil Rights Act
specifically prohibits public discrimination against pregnant women, some may assume pregnant
women are unable to compete in athletics and this view may lead to the termination of athletic
scholarships.
The NCAA‘s rules provide that pregnant athletes may be medically redshirted to allow an extra 6 th
year of athletic eligibility. However, the medical redshirt option is used at the discretion of the 17
school‘s athletic program. It is not a right provided to pregnant women. One athlete who lost her
scholarship due to pregnancy reports, ―this may sound stupid, but the way I look at it is God will
forgive the premarital sex more than he would killing my child. But if I had an abortion, I‘d still be
on the team. Others wonder, ―Are pregnant athletes selfish? For many women athletes there is a
tension, perceived or real, between motherhood and athletics.
What should Fantasia have done?
This case was based on and adapted from a case published by the Association of Practical and Professional Ethics
for use in the national intercollegiate Ethics Bowl competition, and is being used with their permission.
PPLYING THE CRITICAL THINKING MODEL
Rubric for the Critical Thinking Application Paper
NOTE: Chapter 4 “Critical Thinking” in your textbook has a detailed explanation of the critical thinking
model and how to apply it.
1.
Identification (10 points possible)
Identify the central ethical issue present in the case. What is the main ethical problem the decisionmaker must resolve? Furthermore, you must identify as many OTHER ethical issues, questions, or
problems as you can find in the scenario. Distinguish the central issue from the others you identified. Use
details and examples to communicate and explain your response. Be sure to focus on and apply the
critical thinking model to the central issue throughout the rest of this paper.
Rubric: The following is a rubric. A rubric tells you how you will be graded for this assignment. For example, in this section you can earn
8-10 points for identifying ethical ideas or issues with numerous supporting details and examples which are organized logically and
coherently.
10-8 points
Identifies and
distinguishes the central
and secondary ethical
ideas or issues with
numerous supporting
details and examples
which are organized and
communicated logically
and coherently
7-5 points
Identifies and distinguishes
the central and secondary
ethical ideas or issues with
some supporting details
and examples
communicated in an
organized manner
4-3 points
Identifies and distinguishes
the central ethical issue
and some secondary issues
with few details or
examples; communicated
in a somewhat organized
manner
1
2-1 point(s)
Identifies and
distinguishes the
central ethical issue
poorly. Communicated
with almost no details,
with little organization
and lacking recognition
of secondary issues.
0 points
Does not identify
the central ethical
issue and/or
includes no other
ethical issues.
2.
Research (10 points possible)
Gather information relevant to the central ethical issue. Use a minimum of three outside sources
to gain a better understanding of the issue and potential solutions/options. Explain relevance of
information found. (Your instructor will provide specific details regarding appropriate sources
and citation format. You can also check with a college librarian for help with research and
citations.)
10-8 points
Insightfully relates
concepts and ideas from
multiple sources; uses new
information to better
define issue and identify
options; recognizes missing
information; correctly
identifies potential effects
of new information
3.
7-5 points
4-3 points
2-1 point(s)
Accurately relates
concepts and ideas from
multiple sources; uses
new information to
better define issue and
identify options; correctly
identifies potential
effects of new
information
Inaccurately or
incompletely relates
concepts and ideas from
multiple sources; shallow
determination of effect
of new information; or
limited sources
0 points
Poorly integrates
Does not identify
new information
information from
more than one source
to support final
solution; Incorrectly
predicts the effect of
new information
Analysis (15 points)
Compare and contrast available solution/ options relevant to the central ethical issue. Using
logical (inductive or deductive) moral reasoning, clearly explain the ethical implications the
potential solutions/options may have on the stakeholders.
15-12 points
Uses specific inductive or
deductive moral reasoning
to make inferences
regarding premises;
addresses implications and
consequences for the
stakeholders; identifies
facts and morally relevant
information correctly
11-8 points
Uses logical reasoning to
make inferences
regarding options;
addresses implications
and consequences for
the stakeholders;
Identifies facts and
morally relevant
information correctly
7-4 points
Uses superficial
reasoning to make
inferences regarding
options; major
stakeholder (s)
missing; Shows some
confusion regarding
facts, opinions, and
morally relevant,
evidence, data, or
information
2
3-1 point(s)
Makes unexplained,
unsupported, or
unreasonable inferences
regarding options;
irrelevant stakeholders
identified; makes
multiple errors in
distinguishing fact from
fiction or in selecting
morally relevant
evidence.
0 points
Does not analyze
multiple
solutions/options.
Major stakeholders
not identified.
4.
Application (30 points)
Apply two ethical theories to reach a resolution of the central ethical issue. What would the
central principles of each theory imply is the morally right or best course of action or option?
A. Apply one (1) consequential theory (Act or Rule Utilitarianism) 15pts.
B. Apply one (1) non-consequential theory (Deontology (KANT), Contractarianism,
Natural Rights, Natural Law or Virtue Ethics) 15 pts.
For each (A and B) you are to resolve the central ethical issue using the central principles of the theory. A
brief summary of the theory should be included and you are encouraged to use the “Steps in Applying”
the theories presented in Chapters 5 and 6.
15-12 points
11-8 points
Central principles of the
theories are logically and
systematically explained
and applied to the central
ethical issue to reach a
resolution of the main
problem.
5.
7-4 points
Central principles of
the theories are
explained and applied,
but may not be
logically consistent or
applied to specifics of
case.
Applications of the
central principles of
the theories and the
summary may be
shallow, cursory, or
too general.
3-1 point(s)
Applications of the central
principles of the theories and
the theory summaries are
either missing or are not
connected to the central
issue and options in the case.
0 points
Does not apply
central principles to
reach a resolution of
main issue. Summary
of theory missing.
Decision-Making (10 points)
Choose the wisest, most ethical option and justify your decision. This is NOT an opinion. Using your
research and analysis of the options and stakeholders and your applications of the ethical theories, laws,
and rules, select and defend the morally right (or most ethical) resolution to the central ethical issue.
Using facts and relevant evidence from your research and analysis, thoroughly explain why this is the
best solution.
10-8 points
Thoroughly identifies
and addresses key
aspects of the issue
and insightfully uses
facts and relevant
evidence from
analysis to support
and defend potentially
valid solution
7-5 points
Identifies and addresses
key aspects of the issue
and uses facts and
relevant evidence from
analysis to develop
potentially valid
conclusion or solution
4-3 points
Identifies and addresses
some aspects of the
issue; develops possible
conclusion or solution
using some
inappropriate opinions
and irrelevant
information from
analysis
3
2-1 point(s)
0 points
Identifies and addresses only Does not select and
defend a solution
one aspect of the issue but
develops untestable
hypothesis; or develops
invalid conclusions or
solutions based on opinion or
irrelevant information.
6.
Evaluation (10 points)
Identify and provide a minimum of three counter arguments against the option that you selected
as being morally right (or ethically best). What are the possible arguments against the
resolution/option you chose? How would you defend against those arguments?
10-8 points
7-5 points
Insightfully interprets
data or information;
Accurately interprets data
or information;
identifies obvious as well
as hidden assumptions,
establishes credibility of
sources on points other
than authority alone,
avoids fallacies in
reasoning; distinguishes
appropriate arguments
from extraneous
elements; provides
sufficient logical support
identifies obvious
assumptions, establishes
credibility of sources on
points other than authority
alone, avoids fallacies in
reasoning; distinguishes
appropriate arguments
from extraneous elements;
provides sufficient logical
support
7.
4-3 points
Makes some
errors in data or
information
interpretation;
makes arguments
using weak
evidence; provides
superficial support
for conclusions or
solutions
2-1 point(s)
Interprets data or
information incorrectly;
Supports conclusions or
solutions without evidence
or logic; uses data,
information, or evidence
skewed by invalid
assumptions; uses poor
sources of information;
uses fallacious arguments
0 points
Does not evaluate
data, information, or
evidence related to
best option.
Reflection (5 points)
Reflect on your own thought process. What did you learn from this process? What could you do
differently next time to improve the problem-solving process?
5 points
Identifies strengths and
weaknesses in own thinking:
recognizes personal
assumptions, values and
perspectives, compares to
others’, and evaluates them
in the context of alternate
points of view
4 points
Identifies strengths and
weaknesses in own
thinking: recognizes
personal assumptions,
values and perspectives,
compares to others’,
with some comparison
of alternate points of
view.
3-2 points
Identifies some
personal assumptions,
values, and
perspectives;
recognizes some
assumptions, values
and perspectives of
others; shallow
comparisons of
alternate points of
view
4
1 point
Identifies some
personal
assumptions,
values, and
perspectives;
does not consider
alternate points of
view
0 points
Does not reflect on
own thinking
8.
Writing/Composition (10 points)
Remember that this is a Gordon Rule writing assignment; your paper must be at least 2,000 words long.
10 points of your grade will be based on the writing skills you demonstrate in the paper. So organize
your thoughts carefully, explain them clearly, and proof-read carefully for errors in grammar and
spelling.
10-8 points
7-4 points
3-0 points
Writing is clear, coherent, and wellorganized. Very few grammar or spelling
errors. Format meets college standards.
All sources are cited.
Overall writing is acceptable, but
clear weaknesses in organization,
clarity, grammar or spelling.
Format is acceptable. Some
sources are cited.
Writing is unacceptable. Poor organization,
meanings are not clear, and/or numerous errors
in grammar or spelling. Format is poor. No
sources cited.
NOTE: Make sure to review the information on Gordon Rule assignments, as well as the “Instructor Guidelines
for Success” that your instructor may have provided.
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