Topic is Sexual harassment.Wong 1
1.Elsesser, Kim. “The Dark Side Of Empathy: Why Women Are Blamed For Being Sexually
Harassed.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 27 Aug. 2019, Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
This source explores the issue of victim-blaming in sexual harassment and its relation to male
empathy. It shows how the empathy that men feel towards other men motivates them to blame
the female victims of social harassment. It will be used to explain the role played by victimblaming in sexual harassment and the ways in which it can be mitigated. Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
2.Hlavka, Heather R. “Normalizing Sexual Violence”. Gender & Society, vol 28, no. 3, 2014, pp.
337-358. SAGE Publications, doi:10.1177/0891243214526468.
This article explores in detail the normalization of coercion, violence, and sexual harassment in
hetero-normative cultures. It contributes to the research argument by explaining how the
dominant culture’s normalization of sexual harassment is one of the major reasons why women
endure harassment at work instead of reporting it. It will be used to report the cause as to why
women usually do not report how sexual violence is produced, maintained and normalized
among youth.
3.Isaacs, David. “Sexual Harassment”. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol 54, no. 4,
2018, pp. 341-342. Wiley, doi:10.1111/jpc.13877. Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
David Isaacs’ article analyzes various aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace. It explores
the possible causes of sexual harassment, as well as its physical and psychological effects on the
victims. It is significant in the context of the research argument because it presents the adverse
effects of sexual harassment from the perspective of a medical practitioner. It will also contribute
to the argument by suggesting suitable means to not only protect women from harassment but
also to change the attitudes of men who harass their female colleagues.
Wong 2
4.Muller-Heyndyk , Rachel. “Employers Must Take Action on ‘Normalisation’ of Sexual
Harassment.” Home, 27 Mar. 2018. Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
This source delineates the guidelines laid down by the Equality and Human Rights Commission
(EHRC) to ensure that there is no normalization of sexual harassment in the workplace. Since the
normalization of sexual harassment is a crucial issue that the research argument deals with, this
article will suggest ways in which the issue of normalization can be resolved.
5.Penttinen, Elina, et al. Emotional Workplace Abuse: a New Research Approach. Palgrave
Macmillan, 2019. Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
This source analyzes various kinds of emotional and sexual abuse at the workplace and also
suggests methods to combat them. The book reveals the close link between emotional abuse and
sexual harassment which will be used in the research argument to explain why women rarely
report sexual harassment to the authorities. It can be used to argue the reasons for not reporting
and identifying the emotional abuse by the organization or targets.
6.Sahu, Arpita. “Combatting Sexual Harassment Of Women At Workplace”. International
Journal Of Trend In Scientific Research And Development, Volume-2, no. Issue-3, 2018, pp.
2239-2242. South Asia Management Association, doi: 10.31142/ijtsrd12745. Accessed 3 Mar
2020.
This source provides a comprehensive exposition of sexual harassment at work and the various
forms in which it manifests itself. It also suggests suitable measures for organizations to prevent
sexual harassment at work. It will be used in the research argument to throw light on the link
between the economic disadvantages of women and the sexual harassment that they frequently
experience at work.
Wong 3
7.Schulte, Brigid. “To Combat Harassment, More Companies Should Try Bystander
Training.” Harvard Business Review, 31 Oct. 2018. Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
The article focuses on how to effectively prevent sexual harassment in colleges and offices. It
also explains why bystander intervention is such an effective method of dealing with sexual
harassment. It will provide valuable input to the research argument by introducing the concept of
bystander training as an innovative method to avert sexual harassment in the workplace.
8.Slaughter, Anne-Marie. “Sexual Harassment Is Rooted in Power Imbalances.” Financial
Times,
26 Oct. 2017. Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
Anne-Marie Slaughter’s article in the Financial Times is an astute analysis of the imbalance of
power in male-female relations which is one of the major causes of sexual harassment. It
provides ways to reduce sexual harassment among young women.The arguments put forward in
this article will be incorporated into the research argument to explain how the imbalance of
power predisposes women to sexual harassment by men.
9.“The Cost and Consequences of Sexual Violence in California.” California Coalition Against
Sexual Assault, 2018. Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
This source provides crucial insight into the economic aspects of sexual harassment. It compares
the expenditure on victims of sexual abuse and rape in California with the amount of money
spent on preventing sexual harassment. It can be used in the research paper to present an
effective counter-argument to the claim that expenditure on sexual harassment prevention
programs is not economically viable.
10.Thurston, IV. Coping with Sexual Harassment. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.,
2018. Accessed 3 Mar 2020.
Wong 4
This book provides its readers with a comprehensive overview of all facets of sexual harassment.
The different facets include its mechanism of operation, its adverse effects, and the ways in
which it can be combated. This book will be used in the research article to elucidate the
psychological effects of sexual harassment such as depression, anxiety, and suicide.
Readings this lesson references:

chapter 13 of Everything’s an Argument

Tolentino’s “Harvey Weinstein and the Impunity of Powerful Men”

Note:

This lesson provides strategies and tips for writing the Introduction (sections 1 and 2)
of the Research Argument – check Canvas and your syllabus for the upcoming due date
of the rough draft of your Intro
The Introduction

Section 1: Establish Grounds for Your Argument (~2 pages)
 tasks: build exigency, connect with audience with careful pathos, explain all
the data/grounds for your argument, substantiate these grounds using
research

Section 2: Literature Review of Your Topic (~1-2 pgs)
 tasks: show you are aware of the conversation surrounding your topic by
summarizing 2-4 popular secondary sources that all write about your topic
(note: you can use summaries from your annotated bib here)
Section 1: Establishing Grounds for
Your Argument
How to Build Exigency

2 qualities of effective argument introductions:
Exigency & Kairos

These answer:






What exactly is going on?
Can you prove it?
Why does it matter?
Is it urgent? Must we tend to this now?
What is the socio/historic/political context or causation of your exigency?
Strategically communicating your exigency & Kairos involves choosing effective
diction & syntax
How to Build Exigency
Proposal Arguments
Evaluation Arguments
your exigency is that there is an existing,
urgent problem, so in section 1, you
answer:
your exigency is that something fairly
recent has just started happening and
needs exploration/ clarification/
consensus, so in section 1, you answer:
 What has recently been happening?
 When did this start? What caused it?
 Where is this happening?
 What is confusing or unknown?
 To whom is this happening? Whose lives
are at stake?






What events are happening?
Where?
What caused them?
Why are they a problem?
Why does this matter?
For whom does this matter? Whose
lives are at stake?
How to Build Exigency

To answer those questions, connect with your audience, and pack a solid onetwo punch of logos & pathos…

Consider beginning section 1 by combining depth with breadth:
 Depth: Use a testimony or a case study illustrating what’s been happening
and why it matters at a specific/personal/local level
 Breadth: Then provide long-term data, longitudinal studies, or expert
opinion about the issue more largely
Diction: Choosing Words Strategically

“For most academic arguments, [the language you use] sounds weighty because it usually is. It
is not shy about employing highbrow terms, conventional vocabulary, or technical language
because that’s what readers of […] serious magazines and newspapers expect” (Lunsford &
Ruszkiewicz 309, emphasis mine).

To meet the demands of your rhetorical situation, avoid:





relying on colloquialisms & other idiomatic phrases to convey meaning
unnecessary slang & irrelevant pop culture references
too much “I think” or “I believe”
overly emotive diction
Instead, attempt:
 the ”less is more” technique of choosing words carefully & letting their connotation do work for you
 earning meaning with concrete detail
 a balanced tone / mood – indicating you’re in pursuit of truth rather than winning
Syntax: Mastering Sentence Structure

sentence structure should reflect the flow of your ideas, which means it should be
varied

longer sentences build drama by layering detail

shorter sentences can powerfully deliver pithy, profound ideas

sentences with parallelism or repetition draw in readers’ attention to communicate
significance

sentences with clunky punctuation like semi-colons, colons, and dashes – though
sometimes difficult to read – can use syntactical interruption to make readers pay
attention to, as your textbook explains, “their motions and, therefore, their ideas”
(313).

comma splices, fragments, & run-ons, however, may be emphatic, but they often
obfuscate or confuse
Tolentino’s Essay, Exigency, Kairos

In 2015, in a hotel hallway in New York […]

Since the story finally broke—first in the Times and then in a piece by Ronan Farrow, for this magazine—that Weinstein had
buried decades of assault and harassment allegations, with the help of settlements and legal threats, more than fifty women
have come forward to accuse him of similar acts. In Farrow’s piece, three women allege that they were raped. (Weinstein has
acknowledged misbehavior but denied allegations of non-consensual sex.) The once invulnerable producer has been fired from
his own company and abandoned by members of his high-profile legal team; his wife is leaving him; the Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences has rescinded his membership. The N.Y.P.D. has begun an investigation, and women will continue to
come forward: the attorney Gloria Allred, who represents one of Weinstein’s accusers, recently described receiving a “tsunami ”
of calls from women, many of them speaking through tears. Weinstein has been embarrassed again, this time comprehensively.
Lessons from Tolentino

her piece is pathos-heavy, but she doesn’t go for cheap pathos – in other words, her
pathos has substance, delivered by

layering fact upon fact

letting the connotation of a word do the work

varying sentence structure

for example – read through the excerpt of her intro again, and note the lack of highly
emotive words like gross, predator, pig, heinous, creep, monster, etc.
Persuasiveness & Your Academic Rhetorical Situation

To sum up, you do not want to earn your persuasiveness with cheap diction shots and
overwrought, unsubstantiated, flowery language that appeals to pathos sketchily

Instead, you want to strike a balanced tone where you earn your rhetorical power comes
from:
❖ layering detail
❖ choosing your words precisely & being aware of their meaning/connotation/mood
❖ being diligent about deploying accurate terminology for the professional audience
you are addressing
❖ varying syntax to reflect the nature & flow of your ideas
❖ and carefully controlling analogy & imagery
❖while remaining respectful of the gravity of your topic
Using Rhetorical Structures

Given the previous, we can use strategic & infrequent rhetorical
structures to “dramatize ideas, either by clarifying or enhancing the
thoughts themselves or by framing them in language that makes them
stand out[, making your] arguments attractive, memorable, and
powerful” (Lunsford & Ruszkiewicz 318).

such as anaphora, metonymy, or antithesis, etc.

use ch. 13 to learn some of these and there’s an extra credit quiz on
Canvas about rhetorical structures as well Douglass’ essay
Section 2: Literature Review of Your
Topic
Reminders About Section 2

Section 2 pulls from Rogerian and Classical models to cultivate an authoritative and
credible ethos by demonstrating knowledge of and willingness to discuss a variety of
positions in your topic

Here’s how the whole intro works:
 in section 1, you establish grounds by describing what’s going on in your topic and
why it matters.
 then in section 2, you build off of that and summarize the conversation
surrounding your topic

How to write Section 2:
 choose 2-4 popular (or scholarly) sources that write about your topic
 summarize each source in one paragraph
How to Transition to Section 2

You need a clear transitional topic sentence to set up section 2. Otherwise, your
audience will not know the purpose of the summaries in section 2, or worse, your
audience will not be able to distinguish your argument from the other arguments
being made about your topic.

The topic sentence should prepare your audience for summaries of positions and
ideas from other people. It can be as simple and direct as:





“A review of the literature about X indicates…”
“The state of current research about X is…”
“There are many positions within this topic, such as…”
“Currently, the conversation about X is centered on…”
“To summarize the current state of academic research and public conversations about
X,…”
How to Transition to Section 2

But here’s another example of how to set up a literature review.

Example argument:
 (this example is a proposal. in section 1, it explained the many problems with
current drug treatment for depression. in section 2, it will summarize what
others have suggested we do to help treat depression. and in the rest of the
argument, it will go on to propose its own solution of musical therapy as a
suitable treatment option for depression.)

Example transition to Section 2:
 “In fact, other doctors and journalists agree that the current ineffectiveness
of pharmaceutical treatment for depression merits serious consideration,
though their responses to the problem vary.”
How to Write Literature Review Summaries

Use 1 par. per source, and in each par., be sure to
1.
state author’s name, title of source, journal or website of publication, and date
2.
state the source’s main claim
3.
state how the source proves its claim
 (inartistic logos? personal experience? emotion? artistic logos?)
4.
comment on the source
 is the source’s main claim interesting? why?
**can re-use annotated bib summaries where appropriate
The Body

Section 3: Lines of Argument (~6 pgs)
 use par. 1 as a thesis paragraph
 use 6-9 pars. for backing (inartistic logos, artistic logos, pathos) & substantiate
with research
 use 1 par. to conclude with pathos

Section 4: Alternative Positions & Conditions of Rebuttal (~2-3 pgs)
 state, cite, and respond to 3-5 alternative positions/rebuttals, refuting most, and
accommodating at least 1
Outline of Section 3

tip: since section 3 is about 5-7 pages, it helps to outline it like you would any essay
 “intro” of section 3 (1 par.)
 transition to your thesis by stating how it relates to the ideas you
summarized in section 2
 “given what everyone else is saying about these events, there’s still a need for X,” where X =
more exploration/consensus for evaluative arguments and where X = better solutions for
proposal arguments
 state your thesis
 “so I argue here D/G + C”
 state your warrant
 preview backing (like a roadmap or essay map)
 “Various studies, public opinion, expert opinion, and analyses of testimonials all serve to
support W”
Outline of Section 3

tip: since section 3 is about 5-7 pages, it helps to outline it like you would any essay
 “body” of section 3 (6-9 pars.)
 these are your logos / evidence paragraphs, as they back your warrant
 organize each point you need to make into a topic sentence and use the remaining 46ish sentences of the paragraph to defend the point
 bring in all 4 types of empirical evidence if you can
 facts/studies/expert opinion
 polls/surveys
 statistics
 testimonies/narratives
 use the logic of degree, draw on analogous relationships, use historical precedent
 carefully create generalizations for your audiences; cleanly apply generalizations
for your audiences
The Body

Section 3: Lines of Argument (~6 pgs)
 use par. 1 as a thesis paragraph
 use 6-9 pars. for backing (inartistic logos, artistic logos, pathos) & substantiate
with research
 use 1 par. to conclude with pathos

Section 4: Alternative Positions & Conditions of Rebuttal (~2-3 pgs)
 state, cite, and respond to 3-5 alternative positions/rebuttals, refuting most, and
accommodating at least 1
Section 3: Lines of Argument
Outline of Section 3

tip: since section 3 is about 5-7 pages, it helps to outline it like you would any essay
 “intro” of section 3 (1 par.)
 transition to your thesis by stating how it relates to the ideas you
summarized in section 2
 “given what everyone else is saying about these events, there’s still a need for X,” where X =
more exploration/consensus for evaluative arguments and where X = better solutions for
proposal arguments
 state your thesis
 “so I argue here D/G + C”
 state your warrant
 preview backing (like a roadmap or essay map)
 “Various studies, public opinion, expert opinion, and analyses of testimonials all serve to
support W”
Setting up Your Initial Thesis Statement

begin section 3 w/ a transition and a signposted sentence that helps your
readers navigate the move of going from other positions to yours
 ex: Given that current research has extensively explored the problems with the
organ black market, this paper will propose a solution to the crisis. Specifically,
____[thesis]____.
 ex: Because teachers and psychologists haven’t come to a consensus on whether
or not technology should be used more in schools, I attempt here to further
explore and investigate its potential use in classrooms. To put it succinctly,
____[thesis]____.
Initial Thesis Statements = D/G + Claim
evaluations
proposals
✓state solution as a specific course of
✓ state the subject that you’re
✓ include the problem that the solution
✓ include the judgment term(s) you’re
✓ name the people/groups who should
✓ state the details about the subject
evaluating
action (claim)
going to prove (claim)
will solve (d/g)
you’re basing your evaluation on (d/g)
do the action


ex: Due to the failures of the black
market and the current system, the
US government should legalize and
regulate the sale of organs.
ex: Because it promotes social
isolation and exposes young children
to privacy risks, technology is
pedagogically inappropriate for
kindergarten classrooms.
Outline of Section 3

tip: since section 3 is about 5-7 pages, it helps to outline it like you would any essay
 “body” of section 3 (6-9 pars.)
 these are your logos / evidence paragraphs, as they back your warrant
 organize each point you need to make into a topic sentence and use the remaining 46ish sentences of the paragraph to defend the point
 bring in all 4 types of empirical evidence if you can
 facts/studies/expert opinion
 polls/surveys
 statistics
 testimonies/narratives
 use the logic of degree, draw on analogous relationships, use historical precedent
 carefully create generalizations for your audiences; cleanly apply generalizations
for your audiences
Tips for Making Logos Appeals

Tip #1: begin all evidence pars. in section 3 with a topic sentence written in your own words
articulating your own idea
 (words and ideas from sources should always *support* your ideas, so they should be in the
supporting sentences in your paragraphs, never the topic sentence)

Tip #2: adhere to technical guidelines for incorporating source material

Tip #3: use signal phrases to keep your voice/ideas separate from others

Tip #4: use signal phrases to justify your choice to quote or paraphrase from a source

Tip #5: always comment on/interpret/analyze source material by explaining how it relates to
your ideas

Tip #6: use transitions, metacommentary, & signposts to make your artistic proofs clear
more on these tips in the following slides
Writing Artistic Proofs Clearly

Use transitions, metacommentary, & signposts to help your readers follow your thinking
 transitions articulate relationships
 metacommentary clarifies or explains an idea in your essay directly to your readers
 signposts tell your audience what you are doing in your essay

Some examples to include in your writing:









Here’s what I mean:
In other words,
To put it succinctly,
For example,
To use an analogy,
This relates to what I explained earlier, which is that…
What the evidence points to is…
To elaborate further on this…
Though I’ve argued x, others still think y
Reading Good Writing —> Writing Better Yourself

YOU express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern.
Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court’s decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in
the public schools, it is rather strange and paradoxical to find us consciously breaking laws. One may well
ask, “How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?” The answer is found in the fact that
there are two types of laws: there are just laws, and there are unjust laws. […]

Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine when a law is just or unjust? A just
law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law, or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is
out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas, an unjust law is a human
law that is not rooted in eternal and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that
degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the
soul and damages the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a
false sense of inferiority[…]So segregation is not only politically, economically, and sociologically unsound,
but it is morally wrong and sinful.[…] Isn’t segregation an existential expression of man’s tragic separation,
an expression of his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness? So I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision
of the Supreme Court because it is morally right, and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances
because they are morally wrong.

Let us turn to a more concrete example of just and unjust laws. An unjust law is a code that a majority
inflicts on a minority that is not binding on itself. This is difference made legal. On the other hand, a just law
is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow, and that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness
made legal.
Reading Good Writing —> Writing Better Yourself

Notice the transitions to help convey deductive reasoning

Notice the diligence in explaining definitions before applying or challenging
them

Notice the use of topic sentences to ground the paragraph

Dr. King was a theologian and master rhetorician, and he argued very
powerfully in pursuit of human rights – the previous excerpt is taken from
“Letter from Birmingham Jail” and it’s available here if you want to read more
Making Effective
Inartistic Proofs
Using
Signal Phrases
author’s
name
author’s
credentials
your reason for
including this quote
signal verb
Incorporating Source Material
common errors when incorporating source material that are significant enough
to obfuscate your meaning:

comma splices

run-ons

fragments

appositives

dangling participles & modifiers

stylizing publications

incorrect citations
Weak Incorporation of Source Material
Lex Boyle’s research in 2005 includes interviews with 6 female bodybuilders,
they all agree that recent changes to contest judging reflects a new interest
in keeping the sport feminine. For example, judging faces and symmetry as
well as privileging a great ratio between shoulders and waist (pp. 32).
Revised using APA
Lex Boyle’s (2005) research included interviews with 6 female
bodybuilders, and they all agreed that recent changes to contest
judging reflects a new interest in keeping the sport feminine, for
example, judging faces and symmetry as well as privileging a great
ratio between shoulders and waist (p. 32).
Weak Incorporation of Source Material

According to The paradox of pumping Iron, female bodybuilders
simultaneously challenge and uphold traditional values about gender and
sexuality. Which I agree is “empowering and disempowering” because the
female body has historically been the site of discrimination and violence
(Shea, 2010).
Revised using MLA

According to Shea’s peer-reviewed research and analysis in “The Paradox of
Pumping Iron,” female bodybuilders simultaneously challenge and uphold
traditional values about gender and sexuality. I agree that the female
bodybuilders’ experience is “empowering and disempowering” (Shea 43)
because the female body has historically been the site of discrimination and
violence.
Weak Incorporation of Source Material

Alisa Soloman, journalist for the Village Voice reported on a
female bodybuilding panel given that week in 1997 in New
York. Given by scholars as well as competitors, she notes how
panel participants focused on ways that female bodybuilding
does and does not uphold traditional patriarchal norms.
(Soloman, par. 2)
Revised using MLA

Alisa Soloman, journalist for the Village Voice, reports on a female
bodybuilding panel given that week in 1997 in New York. Given by scholars as
well as competitors, the panel allowed participants to focus on ways that
female bodybuilding does and does not uphold traditional patriarchal norms
(Soloman par. 2).
Improving Signal Verbs
more communicative than say, state, and write
(MLA signal verbs → present tense // APA signal verbs → past tense)
argue

explore

suggest

explain

inform

discuss


question

conclude



emphasize
express


acknowledge
agree

dispute

assert

hypothesize

believe

observe

charge
confirm

oppose
criticize

report

reveal

claim


find
Reminder: Patchwriting
The most obvious problem is the
fundamental biological difference
between humans and the animals
used in research. When it comes to
drug discovery and development,
these limitations can jeopardize
every segment of the
pharmaceutical pipeline, from
synthesis to prescription. Side
effects are missed, and millions of
dollars are wasted. Even if a new
chemical entity is deemed safe at
the animal stage, it still only has
an 8 percent chance of being
approved for human use.
Ericson also believes that animals
and humans are so fundamentally
different from one another and
this results in limitations in drug
discovery and development which
can jeopardize all segments of
pharmaceutical pipeline. This
results in missed side effects and
millions of dollars wasted. Ericson
claims that even if a chemical is
deemed safe at the animal testing
stage, there is only an eight
percent chance of that chemical to
be approved for human use (pars.
3-4).
Reminder: Patchwriting
The most obvious problem is the
fundamental biological difference
between humans and the animals
used in research. When it comes to
drug discovery and development,
these limitations can jeopardize
every segment of the
pharmaceutical pipeline, from
synthesis to prescription. Side
effects are missed, and millions of
dollars are wasted. Even if a new
chemical entity is deemed safe at
the animal stage, it still only has
an 8 percent chance of being
approved for human use.
Ericson also believes that animals
and humans are so fundamentally
different from one another and
this results in limitations in drug
discovery and development which
can jeopardize all segments of
pharmaceutical pipeline. This
results in missed side effects and
millions of dollars wasted. Ericson
claims that even if a chemical is
deemed safe at the animal testing
stage, there is only an eight
percent chance of that chemical to
be approved for human use (pars.
3-4).
Reminder: Avoiding Quote Plops

Quote plops (quotes without signal phrases) are significant errors

Example of a plop:
 Many culture critics agree that grammar is tied to power. “The obsession with
grammar and orthography really is a bourgeois grasp for prestige and relevance”
(Kim par. 3).

Revision:
 Example of revision (MLA): Many culture critics agree that grammar is tied to
power because “[t]he obsession with grammar and orthography really is a bourgeois
grasp for prestige and relevance” (Kim par. 3).
 Example of revision (APA): Many culture critics agree that grammar is tied to power,
such as Li Kim (2017), who argued, “The obsession with grammar and orthography
really is a bourgeois grasp for prestige and relevance” (par. 3).
Back to the Outline of Section 3

tip: since section 3 is about 5-7 pages, it helps to outline it like you would any essay
 “conclusion” of section 3 (1 par.)
 you’ve now earned a moment to be explicit in your pathos appeal
 as we’ve learned, testimonies can be effective pathos appeals, and you can use
personal testimony as well
 ultimately, your goal is to finish section 3 by reminding your audience why your work
is so important – it’s good to rely very little here on research. emphasize *your*
voice.
Section 4:
Alternative Positions &
Conditions of Rebuttal
The Importance of Rebuttals

academic arguments should be knowledgeable of opposition and engage that opposition ethically, logically,
and effectively – your ethos appeal is contingent on how you do this

remember that the rhetorical situation in which you are writing means that you are arguing in pursuit of
truth, not necessarily in pursuit of winning. in light of this situation, ethical and logical argumentation:
• doesn’t stack the deck in favor of its claims
• which is why you are required to provide 3-5 rebuttals
• avoids strawmanning the opposition
• which is why you are required to cite each rebuttal
• isn’t dogmatic
• which is why you are required to ultimately agree with and learn from a valid rebuttal
How to Write Rebuttal Paragraphs

Suggestion: use 1 par. per rebuttal, modeled as such:
1.
topic sentence in which you state the rebuttal yourself (However, some think that
__).
2.
cite the rebuttal (For example, Chang (2017) argued ___ (p. 877).)
3.
respond to the rebuttal by either refuting (But what this study got wrong was ____.)
or accommodating it (This study by Chang (2017) is important and should be
considered.)

logically, it makes sense to order the refuted rebuttals first and the accommodated
rebuttal last
Refutation vs. Accommodation

You refute a rebuttal on the grounds that
 it’s misleading, incorrect, or otherwise problematic
 it’s true but irrelevant for your argument

Ways to articulate refutation & transition from the rebuttal to your response
• however, but, nevertheless, regardless, whereas, on the other hand, despite, etc.

You accommodate a rebuttal on the grounds that
• it’s true; it matters; you want to use this rebuttal to improve your original claim

Ways to articulate accommodation & transition from the rebuttal to your response
• yes, and; yes, so; yes, therefore; yes, accordingly; yes, consequently; yes, thus
Strengthening Your Argument with Rebuttals &
Qualifiers

by the end of your argument, in order to conclude, you want to state your thesis as honestly and
accurately as possible, given the evidence you’ve provided in support of *and in opposition to* your
claim

this means that your final thesis statement will attach a qualifier to the original claim

the qualifier – which is the word or phrase that places limitations on or gives exceptions to the original
claim – is logically connected to the accommodation of the rebuttal

a qualified claim is more specific, localized, true, honest

unqualified claims purport to be absolutely, universally true
 but as we’ve learned, claims worth making in the the material, plastic, complicated world
are rarely true in all cases, no exceptions, no questions asked
Examples of Qualifiers

Adverb & adjectival phrases that place limits on
the initial claim, such as:









Presumably
In all probability
At least according to available research
Very likely
Mostly
Maybe
Apparently
Plausibly
Seemingly

Exception clauses to add to the original
claim, such as:
 As long as xx conditions are met
 Except in xx cases
 Given that future research will support it
Qualifying a Claim: Example 1 (Evaluation)

Initial thesis:
 Solar energy, due to its availability and lack of carbon emission, is the most effective and environmentally conscious
alternative energy solution for Middle Eastern governments like Saudi Arabia.
➢ Condition of Rebuttal:
 Its effectiveness is challenged by the fact that these governments enjoy a ready supply of oil; the cost to build up the
infrastructure to actualize the potential of solar is quite high compared to oil (Shahan 3) or (Shahan, 2016, p. 3).
➢ Response to Rebuttal:
• Yes, the cost of implementing solar panels is quite high, and thus should be considered in comprehensive evaluations
of its effectiveness. If other countries’ embrace of alternative energy can serve as an example, the initial cost will likely
be recuperated within a reasonable timeframe.

Final (Qualified) Thesis:
 Solar energy, due to its availability and lack of carbon emission, is the most effective and environmentally conscious
alternative energy solution at least in the long run for Middle Eastern governments like Saudi Arabia.
Qualifying a Claim: Example 2 (Proposal)

Initial thesis:
 Because organ disease and failure continue to claim the lives of so many Americans, the US government
should embrace advanced medicine and increase federal funding for 3D printing research and development.

Condition of rebuttal:
 There are religious and cultural objections to using embryonic stem cells for 3D technology that would make
an increase in federal funding unlikely (Mayo Clinic par. 13) or (Mayo Clinic, 2013, par. 13).

Response to Rebuttal:
• Yes, these objections are serious, and therefore, proposals for funding should take them in account because
they affect the likelihood for getting funding measures passed.

Final (Qualified) Thesis:
 Because organ disease and failure continues to claim the lives of so many Americans, the US government
should embrace advanced medicine and increase federal funding for 3D printing research and development as
long as researchers are transparent about the source of their stem cells.
More Tips for Writing
Powerfully
Transitions as Rhetorical Moves

Transitions are especially important in argumentation
 Because your argument is built through a series of moves
 The validity (success) of your argument depends on the intellectual
relationship between your ideas
 Transitions allow you to explicitly communicate those intellectual relationships

New paragraphs should rarely begin with:
 It, There, This, These, He, She, They
 Demonstratives and pronouns *refer* to other things, so just be precise about
the subject of your paragraphs
More on Transitions

to indicate you’re continuing on with the same idea or adding onto it (throughout sections
1 and 3)
 also, in the same way, likewise, similarly, indeed, in addition, as a matter of fact, moreover,
furthermore

to indicate changes in directions or exceptions (especially important to set up section 4)
 although, but, even though, however, in contrast, instead, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other
hand, alternatively, whereas, conversely, notwithstanding, regardless, despite

to show examples (useful throughout section 3)
 for example, for instance, indeed, in fact, such as, particularly, as an illustration, notably, including,
namely
More on Transitions

to indicate cause and effect (useful throughout sections 1 and 3)
 accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, hence, so then, therefore, thus, given x,

to show a summary or conclusion (useful to set up section 5)
 as a result, as we have seen, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in the end, in the
final analysis, on the whole, therefore, thus, to summarize, given these points, altogether

to indicate chronological order (useful when describing background info in section 1)
 after, as soon as, at first, at the same time, before, eventually, finally, immediately, later, meanwhile,
next, simultaneously, so far, then, thereafter, previously, initially, subsequently, foremost, primarily,
initially
More on Signposting

Ineffective (unnecessary and clunky) use of signpost written in purple
 I did research and found articles that explain the benefits of musical therapy in
treating depression.
 In this next section of my paper, I will discuss the side effects of depression drugs.

Effective (perhaps to set up the thesis statement at the beginning of section 3) use of
signpost written in purple

Whereas most of the scholarship surrounding music therapy explores the
effectiveness of musical therapy, this essay will propose a specific treatment plan
using musical therapy.
More on Avoiding Comma Splices,
Fragments, and Run-Ons

Here’s an additional worksheet with explanations and
examples of these errors.
ENGL& 102: THE ACADEMIC RESEARCH ARGUMENT ESSAY ASSIGNMENT
Logistics & Submission Requirements
-See Canvas for submission guidelines,
lateness policy, and rubric
-Final draft w/ Abstract
must be 3500-4500 words
is worth 40% of total course grade
-Must format your essay and document your
sources using either MLA 8th Ed or APA 6th Ed
How to Arrange & Format the
Components of Your Essay
MLA (8th)
1. 1st page heading, title, & running
header; begin essay
2. Works Cited
3. Abstract
APA (6th)
1. Title page with running header
2. Abstract
3. Repeat title; begin essay
4. References
Prompt
The Academic Research Argument Essay is what the entire course has prepared you for. It will require you
to write a substantial, well-researched argument. You will write either a proposal or an evaluation that
productively intervenes into an exigent human rights issue relating to your academic discipline or personal
interest. You are expected to argue powerfully, in good faith, and in accordance with conventions of
academic argumentation.
As such, your paper will be at least 3500 words, include an abstract, incorporate research from at least 10
sources, at least 2 scholarly and at least 1 primary, and follow all formatting & documentation standards of
either MLA 8th Ed or APA 6th.
Organization & Research
Academic arguments require precise and logical organization. You are strongly encouraged to use the following
structure to organize the different moves of your argument. This structure is generated by synthesizing our work
with the following rhetorical and compositional theories: the Toulmin model, Classical Oration, Rogerian
Argument, Stasis theory, the rhetorical proofs, and the rhetorical situation.
Section 1: Establish Grounds for Your Argument (~2 pages)
Section 2: Literature Review of Your Topic (~1-2 pages)
Section 3: Lines of Argument (~6 pages)
Section 4: Alternative Positions & Conditions of Rebuttal (~2-3 pages)
Section 5: Concluding Statement of Qualified Claim & Exploration of Implications (~1 page)
Sections 1-4, and potentially section 5, will all need to be supported by research. Overall, you are required to
incorporate 10+ sources, with at least 2 scholarly and at least 1 primary source. You are also encouraged, though
not required, to conduct firsthand research.

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