Required ReadingsRead the case study on prison evacuations in teh course resourcesvalidation of a french version of the impact of event scale-revised.pdf the effects of the world trade center event on birth outcomes among term deliveries.pdfDiscussion Board Imagine yourself as either homeless or incarcerated. Would you be accepting or oppositional to receiving aid during a disaster, including evacuation, sheltering and social services? Why?National Jail Exchange 2012
Two Case Studies on Jail Evacuations
During a Natural Disaster: Iowa’s 2008
By Major James A. Murphy, Plymouth County Sheriff’s Department, Plymouth,
This article is based on a training resource prepared for the National Sheriffs’ Association (NSA), Jail
Evacuation and Implementation Program Initiative, part of NSA’s Homeland Security Initiative. The
author helped to develop and deliver this training and wishes to recognize the contributions of an
extensive team. The material is presented here with the permission of NSA and of the Linn County and
Polk County Sheriff’s Offices.
The spring of 2008 was notable in Iowa for extreme flooding in several river drainages. Images from the
flooding were featured on national newscasts. Conditions became so severe that the jails in Polk County
(Des Moines) and Linn County (Cedar Rapids) were evacuated. The Polk County jail was evacuated on a
Friday, and inmates returned 2 days later. In Linn County, the jail was not reopened for nearly a year.
Both situations fortunately were resolved without loss of life or escapes, attesting to the effective
response of staff and preparations that were in place long before the crisis.
Despite their overall success responding to the emergency situations, each jail’s leadership learned
through experience that additional preparations could have improved its response. The different
experiences of the two jails make it clear that jails can benefit from making plans for both “short term”
and “long term” evacuations. This report compares their experiences and highlights ideas that may be of
value to other agencies.
Part 1. Polk County: Short-Term Jail Evacuation
Jail Basics
Agency—Polk County Sheriff’s Office
Jail capacity—950 to 1,000 inmates (housed at the Old Main jail, Interim Jail, and other facilities; Polk
County opened a new jail in 2008)
On-duty staff—223 correctional officers; 60 patrol deputy sheriffs
Inmates moved—260 adult male inmates from the Interim Jail
Page 1 National Jail Exchange –
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Incident Synopsis
The Polk County Interim Jail was located in downtown Des Moines, near the confluence of the Des
Moines and Raccoon Rivers. In the days leading up to the evacuation, jail inmates as well as Polk County
Sheriff’s Office staff worked in a sandbagging operation to hold back the floodwaters. The waters
continued to rise. As it became clear that flooding in the area would likely worsen, a voluntary
evacuation of downtown Des Moines was invoked.
The Polk County Sheriff’s Office responded to ensure the safety of staff and inmates.

June 7—Sheriff Dennis Anderson and his staff activated the agency’s emergency evacuation
planning and notification process.

June 11—The agency implemented an emergency staffing procedure to ensure that an
adequate and safe number of staff would be on duty as events unfolded.

June 13—Rising waters made it necessary to invoke an emergency evacuation order for the Polk
County Interim Jail. Evacuation began at 1120 hours and was completed by 1520 hours, with all
inmates secured at 1700 hours. It was not necessary to evacuate Polk County’s Old Main Jail,
which housed approximately 250 inmates, including the women’s population, or to move
inmates from other Polk County housing locations.

Inmates were returned to the Interim Jail on Sunday, June 15.
Pre-Incident Preparations
Mutual-aid agreements and notification protocols were in place with several correctional and public
safety agencies and organizations:

U.S. Marshals Service

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)

Iowa Department of Corrections—Facilities available if needed included the Iowa Medical and
Classification Center at Oakdale, the women’s facility at Mitchellville, and the men’s Fort Dodge
Correctional Facility.

Iowa State Patrol—Provided escort and security assistance during transport.

Iowa Sheriffs’ Association—Provided a channel for notifying Iowa’s 98 counties in case housing
or other assistance would be needed in a long-term evacuation.

Ankeny (Iowa) Police Department—Designated as a regional lock-up during an emergency.
Various other arrangements were already in place and were invoked to provide for emergency
Page 2 National Jail Exchange –
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Collective bargaining agreements provided for staff overtime and compensation for housing,
relocation, and travel on the part of staff who accompanied the inmates to their evacuation
sites and stayed with them on a rotating basis for the duration of the evacuation period.

Agreements for housing inmates and/or use of bedding provided for inmates’ physical comfort
at their destinations.

An agreement with a third-party medical contractor provided for any needed medical treatment
of inmates, including medical care housing, medications, records management, and staffing.

Transportation of inmates was accomplished through agreements with Southeast Polk
Community School District. Additional transportation assistance was available through
secondary sources but was not needed.

Escorts and security staff were provided by the Polk County Sheriff’s Office and the Iowa State

Arrangements had been made to provide hotel rooms for staff if needed. Instead, staff
members were transported to and from the evacuation site each shift, so hotel beds were not
Actions During the Incident
Because of the rapidly increasing water levels, the evacuation was “rapid” and was undertaken primarily
to remove people from any danger, with no opportunity for taking inmate property or other
unnecessary items.

Throughout the operation, personnel followed a communications plan that called for use of cell
phones and mobile/portable radios.

An operational plan was established, and the decision was made to evacuate the high-risk/
maximum security inmates and administrative segregation inmates first, followed by the general
population and minimum security inmates.

A visual head count was performed prior to departure of each of the facilities.

Muster and staging areas were established in close proximity to both of the Polk County

Within 30 minutes of the evacuation order being issued, the Southeast Polk Community School
District provided nine buses for transporting inmates. Additional buses were available but were
not needed, since only the Interim Jail was evacuated.

Escorts and security staff were provided by the Polk County Sheriff’s Office and the Iowa State
Patrol. The ratio of inmates to officers was 15:2 while in transit, with dense law enforcement
coverage on the 90-minute evacuation route. Three patrol units were assigned to accompany
Page 3 National Jail Exchange –
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each set of three buses. Trip lists and bus assignments had been pre-planned so that the bus
convoy could consist of up to nine buses at a time.

During the evacuation one bus experienced a mechanical problem, which made it necessary to
transfer the on-board inmates and staff to a reserve bus. This occurred without incident.

Adult male inmates were transported to the Fort Dodge Correctional Facility, managed by the
Iowa Department of Corrections.

Polk County Sheriff’s Office staff took responsibility for their inmates at the host facility and
performed on 12-hour shifts. Staff members were transported to and from the evacuation site
for each shift.

Inmates were moved back to Polk County jail custody on Sunday, June 15, without incident.
Lessons Learned
Though the operation went smoothly, the Polk County Sheriff’s Office identified ways to improve its
response if another jail evacuation is necessary in the future.

An “all-hazards” emergency response plan should be developed.

A formal emergency notification system should be established and written in a format that can
be easily followed and easily updated.
Part 2. Linn County Jail: Long-Term Evacuation
Jail Basics
Agency—Linn County Sheriff’s Office
Jail capacity—409
On-duty staff—12
Inmates moved—386 (346 males, 40 females; including 200 federal inmates from the U.S. Marshals
Service and ICE)
Incident Synopsis
The Linn County Jail is a five-story structure located on Mays Island in the Cedar River in downtown
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. As the Cedar River began to swell in early June, 2008, Sheriff Donald Zeller and his
staff were in close communications to monitor the situation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, area
public safety agencies, and other Linn County representatives.
Public safety agencies had difficulty getting accurate river level projections because the upstream
tracking stations became inoperable as they were submerged in water. Projections for the river’s height
and cresting were between 21 and 24 feet; the river finally crested at 31 feet. There were two flashflood rain events in the hours preceding the evacuation. In a defensive act to limit the damage by
Page 4 National Jail Exchange –
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floodwaters, a sandbagging operation was undertaken using Linn County jail inmates and Sheriff’s Office
The Linn County Sheriff’s Office responded to rising water levels with a complete evacuation.
• June 8, 2008—Sheriff Zeller made necessary notifications to implement pre-arranged mutual-aid
• June 11—Higher than normal waters surrounded the Linn County Jail, but the situation still did
not necessitate evacuation.
• June 12—At approximately 0430 hours, an emergency evacuation order was invoked for the jail.
Evacuation of prisoners and staff began at 0730 hours, and the process was completed at 0930
• The jail was reoccupied on May 6, 2009—nearly a year after the evacuation.
• The estimated cost of clean-up was approximately $1.9 million. The facility underwent
remodeling and an addition was added that was nearing completion in mid-2012.
Figure 1 is an upstream view of Mays Island with the Linn County jail in the foreground, plus the
courthouse and city hall. The U.S. Interstate 380 bridge is visible beyond the buildings. It was the only
roadway to connect the east and west sides of Cedar Rapids during the flood.
Figure 1. Mays Island, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in 2008 flood, with the Linn County Detention Center in the
Page 5 National Jail Exchange –
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Pre-Incident Preparations
Sheriff Zeller and his staff had conducted evacuation planning prior to the incident. Because of the
proximity of the Duane Arnold Nuclear Power Station in Palo, Iowa, the Linn County Sheriff’s Office had
participated in a site assessment required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The assessment
established that the Iowa Department of Corrections facilities at Anamosa and Oakdale would house
male inmates and the DOC’s Mitchellville facility would house the jail’s female population. It was also
established during this assessment that 10-person gang chains would be used to restrain inmates during
an evacuation.
Mutual-aid agreements and notification protocols were in place with several correctional and public
safety agencies and organizations.
• U.S. Bureau of Prisons, Federal Correctional Institute, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas—Received
federal inmates.
• Iowa Department of Corrections—Institutions at Anamosa and Oakdale received male inmates,
Mitchellville facility received women inmates.
• Lary A. Nelson Judicial Complex, Iowa Sixth Judicial District, Department of Corrections, Cedar
Rapids—Provided space for arrestee/intake processing, inmate court appearances, and housing
for detainees with jail stays under 30 days.
• Jones County Sheriff’s Office, Anamosa—Provided space for some inmates in arraignment and
acted as a temporary regional lock-up.
• Washington County Sheriff’s Office, Washington—Took custody of 20 maximum
security/administrative segregation inmates at the county’s new jail facility.
• City of Marion Police Department—Used by Linn County Sheriff’s Office and Cedar Rapids Police
Department as an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) because both the Police Department and
Sheriff’s Office also were evacuated due to flood waters.
• Iowa State Patrol, Cedar Rapids Police Department, and Iowa Department of Transportation,
Commercial Vehicle Enforcement Division—Assisted the Linn County Sheriff’s Office with
prisoner escort services.
Actions During the Incident
Sheriff Zeller and his staff notified the agency’s mutual aid providers 4 days prior to invoking the
emergency evacuation order. When the county invoked these mutual-aid agreements, it sought a
commitment of at least 5 days.

Inmate transportation was made possible via five to ten local area public transit buses that were
used in a continuous cycle.

Escorts and security staff were provided by the Linn County Sheriff’s Office, Cedar Rapids Police
Department, the Iowa State Patrol, and the Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT)
Commercial Vehicle Enforcement Division.
Page 6 National Jail Exchange –
National Jail Exchange 2012

The evacuation plan included a decision to evacuate the maximum security and administrative
segregation inmates first, followed by the general population and minimum security inmates.

All evacuated inmates were handcuffed to lessen the potential for escape. The jail had been
provided an ample supply of gang chains when the nuclear plant evacuation plan was

A muster area and inmate staging area were established in close proximity to the Linn County

Emergency plans called for paper records to accompany inmates. All the jail needed to do was
to print out the in-custody lists. Paper copies of legal documents were available in the inmate
legal files and ready to bring along during the evacuation. Legal files and hard copies of inmate
medical records were transported to the initial staging location and were then redistributed
with the staff accompanying the inmates on the various transport buses to the other

The communications plan relied on cell phones and mobile/portable radios.

A small group of federal inmates were transported to FCI-Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, 2 days prior
to the evacuation. This was a prearranged transfer and had nothing to do with the flood. Other
federal inmates were transferred within a few days of their arrival at Iowa DOC temporary
holding facilities to facilities approved by the U.S. Marshals Service and ICE.

Jail staff accompanied the county’s inmates to their destinations—including clerical personnel,
food service staff, nursing staff, correctional officers, and deputies. The destination agencies
provided bedspace and operations space only. Linn County continued to provide all services. No
Linn County jail personnel were laid off as a result of the evacuation.

Staffing was possible through collective bargaining agreements addressing overtime, housing,
relocation, and travel.

Inmate housing was provided for through agreements for use of beds or bedding.

Medical treatment of inmates was delivered by sheriff’s office personnel. Nursing staff traveled
to remote sites with the inmates.
After the Incident
Given the severity of the damage to the jail, new agreements were needed to provide for longer-term
housing beyond the initial evacuation. Female inmates were moved from Mitchellville to the Oakdale
facility. Men stayed mainly at Iowa’s correctional institution in Anamosa. The intake center at the Sixth
Judicial District complex was used for arrestee processing, the housing of compliant inmates who were
being arraigned, and the housing of detainees with jail stays under 30 days. Non-compliant inmates
Page 7 National Jail Exchange –
National Jail Exchange 2012
were housed and arraigned at the Jones County jail in Anamosa. Inmates who were not held at the Sixth
Judicial District complex went to Jones County.
The Linn County Correctional Center reopened in May 2009, though all repairs and mitigation were not
fully complete. Linn County worked with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) on risk
mitigation and improvements in a “Phase II” project to reduce the severity of damages if another flood
occurs of the same magnitude as 2008. An addition to the jail provides elevated second- and third-floor
space for critical mechanical and electrical systems for the jail and courthouse, including the jail’s door
control, computers, camera system, electrical systems, diesel generator, and HVAC. The jail’s laundry
room has been moved to an upper level, and administrative segregation cells have been constructed in
the main-floor space formerly occupied by laundry operations. The jail’s two main hydraulic elevators
have been replaced by traction control elevators, which are operated by counter-weights. The new
elevators will be protected from future flooding because the mechanics of a traction elevator are not
located in the lowest level of the building as they are with hydraulic elevators. As a non-flood related
part of the project, the jail’s kitchen has also been expanded to improve efficiency and capacity to feed a
larger jail population than the original kitchen was designed for in 1984. Project costs were $7.6 million,
$3.5 million of which was provided by FEMA and $4.1 million through Linn County bonding.
Lessons Learned
The Linn County Jail remained in a state of evacuation for nearly a year. For the emergency evacuation,
jail personnel identified several aspects that could have been anticipated that would have improved the
response to the incident.

Although initially the local transit buses were effective during the evacuation process, as the
depth of the water rose, the buses began to have clearance issues and to float, causing a loss of
control. The evacuation of inmates already was nearly complete when this occurred. School
buses, which sit on a higher platform, may have been better utilized in this incident.

Access to all information technology was lost in the evacuation. Linn County’s MIS department
also was flooded, so access to the servers was lost for several days, until the system could be
reestablished at a different location. The MIS department now has been relocated to higher
ground in another area of the city.

It would have been helpful to have established, in advance, release agreements with the local
courts to allow for emergency releases of minimum classification inmates, inmates with short
sentences, and work release inmates.

At the time of the flood evacuation, radio systems for the Linn County Sheriff’s Office operated
on VHF, the Cedar Rapids Police Department on 800 MHz, and the Marion Police Department on
UHF. These systems did not allow for seamless communications between the law enforcement
agencies during this incident. The entire county has since moved toward a shared countywide
Page 8 National Jail Exchange –
National Jail Exchange 2012
communications system for all emergency responders, which is expected to be fully operational
in the first quarter of 2013.

It is important for agencies to have an up-to-date system for mass notification when an
emergency occurs. Linn County utilized a “Code Red” mass notification system in connection
with the flooding.

Agencies should establish a family notification system so that family members of both staff and
inmates can receive non-security-related status updates during an incident.

Agencies will need to have a coordinated process in place for media relations and notification. In
this incident, the public information officers of both the county and the sheriff’s office were
heavily utilized. Daily press briefings were held at the relocated county government offices at
Kirkwood Community College.

Agencies should establish a “go” inventory of booking paperwork, inmate commissary supplies,
and medication and medical supplies.

To prevent losses due to water or other damage, agencies should limit the amount of property
and valuables that inmates can possess or store at the jail.

Agencies should develop a property reimbursement system not only for inmate property, but
also for staff property that could be damaged or lost during an emergency evacuation.

Agencies should contribute to the development of interagency standards and guidelines for
emergency evacuations, so that if the need arises all participating agencies will be operationally
ready to assist with a shared understanding of what is needed.
The men and women of the participating agencies in Iowa and beyond should be applauded for their
professionalism and dedication before and during these catastrophic events. The support and
understanding of their families is also to be recognized. The staff members’ dedicated service ensured
that there was no loss of life or escape attempts.
Natural disasters can take many forms, and no jail is entirely free from risk. Surviving such an event
allows an agency to identify its own strengths and weaknesses. By participating in this study, the Linn
County and Polk County Sheriff’s Offices not only showed their dedication to improving their respective
operational and emergency evacuation plans, but also have helped to promote effective emergency
preparation in other agencies.
All of the many agencies involved in these two incidents worked together for the common good. The
Linn County Sheriff’s Office suffered a very large setback to its operations and has risen to the challenge,
performing admirably during the recovery. Staff of the Polk County Sheriff’s Office also demonstrated
outstanding professionalism under conditions that were less dire but still quite threatening. Although
Page 9 National Jail Exchange –
National Jail Exchange 2012
the widespread flooding in June 2008 was devastating and destructive to many citizens and emergency
responders in and around the State of Iowa, the public safety response is to be congratulated. These
events have reinforced agencies’ understanding of the continuous need for “all-hazards” training and
exercises to be undertaken with federal, state, county, tribal, and local agencies, as well as the benefits
of including the private sector in disaster planning.
Document available at:
The National Jail Exchange is an ongoing electronic journal focusing on providing information to jails
practitioners and is sponsored by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC). The contents of the articles,
the points of view expressed by the authors, and comments posted in reaction to the articles do not
necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the National Institute of Corrections.
To write an article or to learn more about the National Jail Exchange, visit the homepage for this journal
Page National Jail Exchange –
The Effects of the World Trade Center Event on Birth Outcomes among Term Deli…
Sally Ann Lederman; Virginia Rauh; Lisa Weiss; Janet L Stein; et al
Environmental Health Perspectives; Dec 2004; 112, 17; Health Module
Children’ 5 Health I Article
The Effects of the World Trade Center Event on Birth Outcomes among Term
Deliveries at Three Lower Manhattan Hospitals
Sally Ann Lederman,l Virginia Rauh, 1 Lisa Weiss, 1 Janet L Stein/ Lori A. Hoepner,l Mark Becker,3 and
Frederica P. Perera 1
lColurJ’bia Center fcr Children’s Environmental Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, Now York,
USA; “Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York, USA; 3Center for Inte,nat’onal Earth
Science Information Network, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
]11 ;:II.JditiDI1
The effects of prenatal expO$mt to pollum”,.’ from the World T,ude Center (WTC) disaster on
fctal growth and subsequent health and development of exposed childrell remain a source of eOIl­
cern. We assessed rhe impact of gestational timing of the disaster and distance from the WTC in
the 4 weeks ‘lfter 11 SeprCmhel” on the birth outcomes of 300 non,smoking women who were preg~
!latH at rhe time of the event. They were recruited at delivery between December 2001 ;Ind June
2002 from three hos!,ital, close (0 the wrc site. Residential and work addresses of all parric!­
pants for each of rhe 4 weeks after 11 Seprember 2001 were geocoded for classification by pl””e
and Liming of’ exposure” Average daily hours spent at each location were based on the womcn>s
rCf10ns for c.lCh week. Biomedicul prcgn:mcy and delivery data extracted from the medtcai records of
each mother and newborn included medical complicarions, type of delivery, Icngrh of gestation,
hirth weight, hirrh length) ;:md head t’ircumference. Term lnfanrs horn to women who were preg~
n;un on 1 I September 2001 and who were living within a 2-mile radius of the ,’TC during the
monrh ;-tftcr the event showed significant dccremcHrs in term birth weight (-149 g) and birth
length (-0.82 em), compared with inf.mts horn to the other pregnanr women studied, after con­
trolltng f~)r soclodemograpltic and biomedical risk factors. The decrenlenui reulained significant
Wilh adjustment for gestational duration (-122 g and -0.74 etn, respectively). Vomeu in the first
trimester of pregnant;y at the time of the WTC event delivered infauts wirh significantly shorter
gestation (~3,6 days) and a _s:maller head circlImfcrelH:c (-{),48 crn)) compared vith women at later
stages of pregml11CYI reg;lfdicss of the disrance of rheir residence or work sites from (he WTC. The
obscl”Yl!’d adverse effects sugge . .·r an impact of pollutants and/or srress related to rhe WTC disaster
and have im!,licadons For the heald, .’H:I development of exposed children. Key words: binh
length) birth weight f geographic tnfonnation sysrems) ge.stational duration, head circumference,
newborns, Wodd Trade Center. E,”,irol1 Health Perspect 112:1772-1778 (2004;.
doi: I 0.1289101,1′.7348 available v;’ /JIIl’:/ldx.doLorg/ [Online 8 September 2004]
ro (onc::rn.s about the Doten~
levels of CXPOSllrCC, from the WTC
arise ,1S [() po,.,iblc differa,,,)Coaled with [‘le
associared witl,
5ignific~nr as~ocja(ioll tlcrwcC’!1 carly
particulate !11(‘rwecn the residcntial allctcmploy­
111CO[ group:’; in lhtily hOllr$ of exposure aver·
over tile 4·wcck period ,uch r:1’lt the
hDLlrS with i n the
pared with the
Birth outcomes, All
scs were limited ro lerm deliveries. Table 2
shows the average length of
were no
(:um{crcncc, ponderal index. or
or S(;A
hirths (either
< IOrh to or proxim:[y ro the WTC !Il~ cvelH ill pregnancy all birth outcome.s, aft(l' adjustment For potential confl)tmdl'1's and rekvam covariares. Tablc 3. model I, shows that tcrm int;lIl[s of \/0 111 ('n wiThin [h~ 2·mik radius dur­ ~:frcl' 1 I ill£' rill' 4 -' 011 aVCl'''gc, 14 2,500 g), is associated with increased fctal mortality (Secti, and Peng 2000). neonatal mormlity (Arias er ai. 2003; Rees at a!. 1996; Seeds ,wd Pen!;, 2000), illf~nr mortality (Arias et a!. 20(3), subseqllC'nt poorer healrh and delayed physical and cognitive development (Barker 19%; [}rcr~ I :)94; Matte et ul. 200 J; significantly fewer hours pCI' day in the area than did residents. Furrhermore, a number of tbe employed women did not return to 'Nork wirhin the 2-mHe radius during the first week alldlor worked shorter hours in the few weeks after 1 1 September 200 t, possibly mini­ mizing their exposure during the highest emis­ sion period. Those who travcicd into tbe area to work for scme hours each day rc:urned home daily to residences located outside of the area. 30 = 2!i " E c 'it 20 1; .,; :2 • • • 10 11 '1 13 14 • • • • n • • • • U 15 Hi 11 16 19 21 22 :!3 24 Averago no, of hours per day at work Figure:l, Aver~ge hOllrs at work per d"y for wOlllen working within 2 miles of tl1e WTC site. Table 2. Unadjusted birth OUtcO;1flS lJy plHce of reSidence and employment (Within 2rniles of the WTC). Birtil outcomes Len[Jtll Birth Blttll Hoad POClrJerill indfJx!' PnruH't SGP, PorcenlSGA 112 I NUM6ER 171 December 2004 Reproduced with permjssj~n of the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited without permission. (l2BG O.5Hl l775 rhe The additional finding ch;;t exposure ro the firsr rrilllesfcr of prtg­ with signit;cantly shoner bur 5riil po[c,mially aillong tern1 infants, work cr rcsiril-Ilce, is location or im;l(,rrant. The las[ weeks :Ind arc ch,rractcri;,eri by rapid fetal Firs!, it h,,, been plTvillllsly shown hinh increases by dou gld.",mcgill.~tl etll.'ltt1lt:S(,jtt ",!,~"".u.,,",, ar epoquedu ai'autre!> que::tion­
a..une.Va1 idueinterneetmlenabHjte de test·retesfsatis;
fat:raductioueta~t5emblat>lea la structure tb.sori,!ue pro-
No 1
,. ””’fnn ,11
Copyright © 2003 EBSCO Publishing

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