PHIL 120: Second Essay Assignment
Due: Wednesday, March 4th (at 9:00 AM on Canvas).
Please make sure to read all instructions carefully before writing your paper. In response to the
prompt below, you are to write a 750 to 1000-word paper (3-4 double-spaced pages). Your
paper should be typed in 12-point font, double-spaced, with 1” margins. You are required to
submit your paper under the appropriate assignment on Canvas (there is no need to turn in a
hard copy).

Failure to properly cite the text will result in a lower grade.
You are not required to submit a bibliography page, but you must include in-text
citations. Every time that you make a reference to the text (e.g., when you [a] cite a
passage, [b] paraphrase an idea, or [c] attribute a view to an author) you must include
parentheses at the end of the sentence enclosing the page number from which the
passage, idea or view is taken.
For example:
According to James Rachels, “morality demands that we be unselfish. How unselfish is a hard
question…we are expected to be attentive to other people’s needs at least to some degree” (64)
James Rachels thinks that one requirement of morality is that humans act unselfishly (64).

You are not allowed to “cite” the slides for this class. If you want to cite an idea from the
slides but are having trouble finding it in the text, just let me know and I will be more
than happy to point you in the right direction.
• You are not allowed to use secondary sources for this paper.
Writing expectations:

Your writing should be as clear and concise as possible, without sacrificing content.
You may quote passages from the text, but you should try to paraphrase when you can. I
want to see that you can explain the material in your own words.
It is okay to use the first person, but remember you are not just “giving your opinion.”
You should provide reasons for what you think.
You do not need to write a conclusion for this paper.
You should write a short introduction in which you state what you are going to
argue in the paper. You should model your introduction on the one provided from
the first assignment.
Your paper should incorporate the feedback that you received from the first paper. Make sure to
review the comments and please come see me if you have any questions about them.
Please select ONE of the following options.
Option 1: Sandel versus Brennan and Jaworski
Part 1: explain in as much detail as possible Michael Sandel’s argument in favor of moral limits on
markets (i.e., explain why he thinks some things should not be bought or sold). (1-1.5 pages doublespaced)

You should explain what he means by the argument from coercion and the argument from
corruption and how these two arguments differ.
You should make use of at least one example to help illustrate Sandel’s position.
Part 2: explain in as much detail as possible Brennan and Jaworski’s argument against the idea that there
should be inherent limits on markets. (1-1.5 pages double-spaced)

You should clarify what their main thesis is.
You should explain the different ways in which they think that markets could be limited (limits
due to the principle of wrongful possession, incidental limits, and inherent limits).
You should make use of at least one example to help illustrate their position.
Part 3: state which of the two theories you take to be more convincing and provide an argument in
support of this claim. (0.5-1 page double-spaced)

You should state clearly which of the two theories you take to be more convincing.
You should provide clear reasons in support of this claim.
Option 2: The Pros and Cons of Organ Sales
Part One: drawing from the course readings (Dworkin and Satz) provide the best possible argument that
you can in support of organ markets. (1-1.5 pages double-spaced)

We have looked at several arguments in support of allowing for organ markets. While you need
not address all of them, you should address the ones that you find to be most convincing.
Make sure to explain the arguments in detail. You may find it helpful to provide examples to
illustrate what you mean.
Part Two: drawing from the course readings (Dworkin and Satz) provide the best possible argument that
you can against organ markets. (1-1.5 pages double-spaced)

Again, you need not address all the arguments we have looked at, but you should consider the
ones you take to be strongest.
Make sure to explain the arguments in detail. You may find it helpful to provide examples to
illustrate what you mean.
Part 3: state which of the two positions (i.e., for or against organ markets) you take to be more
convincing and provide an argument in support of this claim. (0.5-1 page double spaced)

You should state your position clearly.
You should provide clear reasons in support of this claim.
of the first
15 points
Provides plenty
of relevant detail.
Key concepts are
clearly explained
in a way that
shows strong
command of
material. No
errors or
Covers key aspects
of the position but
leaves out some
relevant details.
Key concepts are
explained, but with
some unclarity
(e.g., over-reliance
on quotes, or failure
to explain
between ideas).
May include minor
See above
Covers some key
aspects of the
position but leaves
out many significant
details. Effort is
made to explain key
concepts, but with
significant errors or
unclarity. Suggests
minimal familiarity
with the text.
Does not cover key
aspects of the
position and leaves
out many
significant details.
Little to no effort is
made to engage
with material,
and/or includes
major errors or
See above
See above
Clearly states
which of the two
positions is
stronger. Gives
strong reasons
(including textual
support) for this
States which of the
two positions is
stronger. May
overlook minor
details or include
considerations that
are not clearly
relevant. The
reasons offered are
Extremely limited
or non-existent
argument for one
of the two
positions. Does not
engagement with
the material.
Writing is clear,
concise and wellorganized. There
are no significant
Writing is mostly
clear, and wellorganized. There
may be a few
places where clarity
could be improved,
or slight
problems (e.g.,
wordiness, etc.).
Does not take a
clear stance on
which position is
stronger, or does so
in a way that is
either unclear, or
rests on a
misunderstanding of
the texts and/or is
not clearly relevant.
Offers weak reasons
in support of the
Writing lacks clarity
and concision.
Grammatical or
organizational errors
occasionally prevent
ideas from being
Explanation See above
of the
15 points
in support
of one of
the two
10 points
10 points
Significant issues
in clarity.
Grammatical or
errors often prevent
ideas from being
PHIL 120: Ethics of Enterprise and Exchange
CRN 24955
MTWR 9:00-9:50
253 STB
Instructor: Paul Showler
11C Susan Campbell Hall
Office Hours: R 10:00-11:50
Course Description
This course serves as an introduction to a range of ethical questions related to our practices of
enterprise and exchange (working, buying, selling, advertising, etc.) and the broader social
contexts in which they occur. We will begin with an overview of some of the most influential
normative ethical theories and then explore how these theories bear on moral issues related to
business. Some of the questions that we shall explore include: What responsibilities do
businesses have to promote the social good? To what lengths should corporations go to ensure
the protection of the environment, or the economic, social and political stability of the
communities within which they operate? Do markets inhibit our ethical relations with others?
Are there certain things—like human organs, sex, or votes—that should not be bought or sold?
How should decisions within a business be made? What steps ought companies take to prevent
discrimination and sexual harassment within the workplace? When does advertising limit our
ability to act autonomously? What does it mean to be an ethical consumer?
Course Outcomes:
This course aims to provide students with a variety of skills:
1. Acquire a basic familiarity with normative ethical theories, and issues related to practices
of enterprise and exchange.
2. Develop the ability to bring philosophical analysis to bear on moral questions, reflecting
critically on their own and others’ experiences.
3. Reasoning skills (ability to reconstruct and assess arguments), and communication skills
(ability to convey complex ideas clearly and systematically).
Required Readings
Most of the readings for this class shall be included in a course pack (available for purchase at
The Copy Shop 538 E 13th Ave.). Additionally, some readings shall be posted directly to Canvas.
Please review the course schedule (below) for more information.
TWO in-class exams (25% each, 50% total):
You are required to write two in-class exams that shall test your understanding of course
material. Each exam shall be comprised of both short and long answer questions. Please see the
reading schedule for exam dates.
TWO Short papers (25% each, 50% total):
There will be two short writing assignments for this class. I shall provide you with a set of
possible essay prompts. Essays must be typed, double spaced, 12-point font. Please see reading
schedule for due dates.
Attendance Policy:
Attendance for the class is mandatory. You are expected to arrive at class on time, with a
physical copy of the reading. You can miss up to three classes without penalty. For each
additional absence 2% will be deducted from your final grade. So, for instance, if you miss a
total of 5 classes, 4% will be subtracted from your final grade.
Course Schedule
Please note that this may be subject to change.
Unit #1: Normative Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility
Week 1

Introduction to class
Rachels, “ Ethical Egoism.”
Rachels (continued)
Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (Excerpts)
Week 2


Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (Excerpts)
Friedman, “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its
Profits.” [On Canvas]
Heal, “Social, Environmental and Financial Performance”
Heal (continued)
Week 3

No Class
Shafer-Landau, “Consequentialism: Its Nature and Attractions”

Shafer-Landau, “Consequentialism: Its Nature and Attractions”
Shafer-Landau, “The Kantian Perspective: Autonomy and Respect”
Week 4


Rachels, “The Ethics of Virtue”
Lindemann, “What is Feminist Ethics?”
Rachels and Lindemann (continued)
First paper due Wednesday in class
REVIEW Session
Unit #2: Ethics and the Limit of Markets
Week 5

Sandel, What Money Can’t Buy (Lecture 1)
Sandel, What Money Can’t Buy (Lecture 2)
Dworkin, “Markets and Morals: The Case for Organ Sales”
Week 6

Satz, “The Moral Limits of Markets: The Case of Human Kidneys”
Satz (continued)
Brenner and Jaworski, Markets Without Limits (Introduction)
Brenner and Jaworski (Chapter One)
Unit #3: Ethical Issues in the Workplace
Week 7


Anderson, Private Government
Anderson (Continued)
Smith & Kidder, “You’ve Been Tagged! (Then Again Maybe Not):
Employers and Facebook”
Smith & Kidder (continued)
Week 8

DeGeorge, “Whistleblowing”
DeGeorge (continued)
Sterba, “How Best to Define Affirmative Action”
Sterba (continued)
Unit #4: Advertising and Consumption
Week 9



Marcuse, “The New Forms of Control”
Second paper due Monday in class
Marcuse, (continued); and Heal, “Appendix: Whirlpool and Corporate
Social Responsibility”
Crisp, “Persuasive Advertising, Autonomy, and the Creation of Desire”
Crisp (continued)
Week 10

Philosophy and Ethical Consumption [On Canvas]
REVIEW Session
Final Exam
Course Policies
Extensions: Extensions for assignments and exams shall only be granted in the case of
documented emergencies.
Expectations: Students are expected to participate and attend lectures. To succeed in this respect
students should come to class prepared (this involves completing readings and bringing the text
to class).
A = excellent. No mistakes, well-written, and distinctive in some way or other.
B = good. No significant mistakes, well-written, but not distinctive in any way.
C = OK. Some errors, but a basic grasp of the material.
D = poor. Several errors. A tenuous grasp of the material.
F = failing. Problematic on all fronts indicating either no real grasp of the material or a complete
lack of effort.
A 94-100
A- 90-93.9
B+ 87-89.9
B 83-86.9
B- 80-82.9
C+ 77-79.9
C 73-76.9
C- 70-72.9
D 60-69.9
F Below 60
Pass/No Pass Grading: A grade of ‘P’ requires a percentage score of 70% or higher.
Academic Dishonesty: Plagiarism or cheating will not be tolerated. Please refer to the
University of Oregon Student Conduct Code for information about what constitutes academic
Assistance and Resources
Accessible Education Center (AEC): coordinates services, provides advocacy and support to
students with documented physical, learning, and psychological disabilities and provides
assistance to the general campus community in responding appropriately to requests for
accommodations based on disability.
Location: 164 Oregon Hall
Web page:
Phone: 541-346-1155. Email:
Teaching & Learning Center (TLC): TLC provides numerous resources (including courses,
workshops, and tutoring) to help UO students succeed. They work with a diverse student body
with a wide range of needs. If you are unsure which resources would work best, they are happy
to answer questions and share suggestions.
Location: 68 PLC.
Web page:
Phone: 541-346-3226.
University Counseling and Testing Center (UCTC): The UCTC provides comprehensive
mental health care and testing services to the University of Oregon campus. The primary mission
of the UCTC is to provide quality clinical/therapeutic services, psychological testing and
assessment, psychoeducational workshops and outreach as well as emergency services.
Location: 2nd floor, University Health, Counseling, and Testing Center Building
Web site:
24-Hour Crisis Hotline: 541-346-3227
Discrimination and Sexual Harassment: The UO is committed to providing an environment free
of all forms of discrimination and sexual harassment, including sexual assault, domestic and
dating violence and gender-based stalking. If you (or someone you know) has experienced or
experiences gender-based violence (intimate partner violence, attempted or completed sexual
assault, harassment, coercion, stalking, etc.), know that you are not alone. UO has staff members
trained to support survivors in navigating campus life, accessing health and counseling services,
providing academic and housing accommodations, helping with legal protective orders, and
more. Our goal is to make sure you are aware of the range of options available to you and have
access to the resources you need. If you wish to speak to someone confidentially, you can call
541-346-SAFE, UO’s 24-hour hotline, to be connected to a confidential counselor to discuss
your options. You can also visit the SAFE website at

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