CPA Chapter 10 Mgt300
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1. Use the link provided in the CPA folder to take the Big Five Personalities Test. The page will
be the first page of a self-assessment. The assessment will include a few pages of questions. It
took me about than ten minutes to answer them all. Read them carefully so you answer the
questions accurately.
a. Provide your results indicating the percentages of each dimension: Agreeableness,
Conscientiousness, Neuroticism (or Low Emotional Stability), Openness, and Extroversion.
b. Read the article “Understanding the Big Five Personality Traits.” For each of the dimensions,
identify some of the traits under each of the definitions of the dimensions that you strongly
identify with.
c. After reading the information in our book (Section 10.4a) and the article. Identify how this
information can help a manager work with their employees better as well as what you see as
the limitations of the assessment.
3. The four components of Emotional Intelligence or EI are self-awareness, self-management,
social awareness, and relationship management. Select two of these components that you
need to improve on to be a better team member and future leader. Explain why you think you
improving these areas will make you a stronger leader. Be detailed and reference information
from the text AND the video in the CPA folder.
4. After reading all of Section 10.1 Understanding Yourself and Others, explain why selfawareness important for being a good manager. Can you think of some specific negative
consequences that might result from a manager with low self-awareness?
5. Read Section 10.2 Job Satisfaction and Trust. Most people are happier and healthier when
they have positive feelings about their jobs and the organization for which they work. In a short
essay, evaluate the relationship between job satisfaction, employee trust in management, and
commitment organizational. Indicate if you believe job satisfaction or trust in management is a
greater factor in creating higher employee performance.
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Understanding the Big Five Personality Traits
By Cynthia Vinney
Updated September 27, 2018
Today’s psychologists agree that personality can be described by five broad traits: openness to
experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Together, these
traits make up the five-factor model of personality known as the Big Five.
Key Takeaways: Big Five Personality Traits
The Big Five personality traits are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion,
agreeableness, and neuroticism. Each trait represents a continuum. Individuals can fall
anywhere on the continuum for each trait. Evidence suggests that personality is highly stable
during adulthood, although small changes may be possible.
Origin of the Big Five Model
The Big Five, as well as other models that specify human personality traits, arises from the
lexical hypothesis, which was first proposed by Francis Galton in the 1800s. The lexical
hypothesis states that every natural language contains all the personality descriptions that are
relevant and important to the speakers of that language.
In 1936, pioneering psychologist Gordon Allport and his colleague Henry Odbert explored this
hypothesis by going through an unabridged English dictionary and creating a list of 18,000
words related to individual differences. Approximately 4,500 of those terms reflected
personality traits. This sprawling set of terms gave psychologists interested in the lexical
hypothesis a place to start, but it wasn’t useful for research, so other scholars attempted to
narrow the set of words down.
Eventually, in the 1940s, Raymond Cattell and his colleagues used statistical methods to reduce
the list to a set of only 16 traits. Several additional scholars analyzed Cattell’s work, including
Donald Fiske in 1949, and they all came to a similar conclusion: the data contained a strong,
stable set of five traits.
However, it wasn’t until the 1980s that the Big Five began to receive wider scholarly attention.
Today, the Big Five is a ubiquitous part of psychology research, and psychologists largely agree
that personality can be grouped into the five basic traits specified by the Big Five.
The Big Five Traits
Each Big Five trait represents a continuum. For example, the trait of extraversion’s opposite is
introversion. Together, extraversion and introversion make up opposing ends of a spectrum for
that Big Five trait. People can be very extraverted or very introverted, but most people will fall
somewhere in between the extremes of the spectrum.
It’s also important to remember that each trait of the Big Five is very broad, representing a
cluster of many personality characteristics. These characteristics are more specific and granular
than each of the five traits as a whole. Thus, each trait can be defined in general and also
broken down into several facets.
Openness to Experience
If you possess high openness to experience, you are open to all the original and complex things
life has to offer, both experientially and mentally. The opposite of openness to experience is
Individuals with this trait are usually:
Interested in many things
Conscientiousness means having good impulse control, which enables individuals to fulfill tasks
and meet goals. Conscientious behavior includes planning and organization, delaying
gratification, avoiding compulsive action, and following cultural norms. The opposite of
conscientiousness is lack of direction.
Key facets of conscientiousness include:
Order, or organizational skills
Dutifulness, or a lack of carelessness
Achievement through hard work
Being deliberate and controlled
Extraverted individuals who draws their energy from their interactions with the social world.
Extraverts are sociable, talkative, and outgoing. The opposite of extraversion is introversion.
Extraverts are typically:
Emotionally positive and enthusiastic
Warm and outgoing
The trait of agreeableness refers to a positive and altruistic orientation. This trait enables
individuals to see the best in others, trust others, and behave prosocially. The opposite of
agreeableness is antagonism.
Agreeable people are often:
Trusting and forgiving
Straightforward and undemanding
Affable and amenable
Sympathetic to others
Neuroticism refers to a tendency towards negative emotions and includes experiences like
feeling anxious and depressed. The opposite of neuroticism is emotional stability.
Key facets of neuroticism include:
Anxiety and tension
Angry hostility and irritability,
Self-consciousness and shyness,
Being impulsive and moody
Lack of self-confidence
The acronym OCEAN is a handy device for the traits specified by the Big Five.
Can Personality Be Changed?
Personality traits tend to be highly stable during adulthood. While some gradual shifts in
personality traits may be possible, these shifts are generally not drastic. In other words, if an
individual is low on the trait of extraversion (meaning they are more introverted than
extraverted), they are likely to stay that way, though they may become slightly more or less
extraverted over time.
This consistency is partially explained by genetics, which plays a significant role in the traits one
develops. For example, one twin study showed that when the Big Five personality traits of
identical and fraternal twins were assessed, the influence of genetics was 61% for openness to
experience, 44% for conscientiousness, 53% for extraversion, and 41% for both agreeableness
and neuroticism.
Environment may indirectly reinforce inherited traits as well. For instance, in creating an
environment that works with their own traits, parents also create an environment that works
with their children’s traits. Similarly, as adults, people choose environments that reinforce and
support their traits.
The Big Five in Childhood
Research on the Big Five has been criticized in the past for focusing primarily on adult
personality development and ignoring the development of these traits in children. Yet, recent
research has shown that children as young as five have the ability to describe their personality
and that by six, children begin to show consistency and stability in the traits of
conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness.
Two other studies showed that while the Big Five seems to manifest in children, children’s
personalities may also include additional traits. One study of American adolescent boys found
that in addition to the Big Five traits, participants also displayed two additional traits. The
researchers labeled these as irritability (negative affect that led to developmentally
inappropriate behaviors like whining and tantrums) and activity (energy and physical activity).
Another study of Dutch children of both sexes between the ages of 3 and 16 also found two
additional personality traits. While one was similar to the activity trait found in the previously
discussed study, the other, dependency (relying on others), was different.
Age Differences in Personality Traits
Research has suggested the Big Five traits evolve with age over the life span. In an analysis of 92
longitudinal studies that examined changes in personality traits from youth to old age, scholars
found that people became more conscientious, less neurotic, and increase in social dominance,
a facet of extraversion, as they get older. People also became more agreeable in old age. And
while adolescents were more open to experience and demonstrated greater social vitality,
another facet of extraversion, especially during the college years, people decreased in these
traits during old age.
Allport, Gordon W. and Henry S. Odbert. “Trait-Names: A Psycho-Lexical Study.” Psychological
Monographs, vol. 47, no. 1, 1936, pp. i-171.
Cattell, Raymond B. “The description of Personality: Basic Traits Resolved Into Clusters.” Journal
of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 38, vol. 4, 1943, pp. 476-506.
Costa, Paul T., and Robert R. McCrae. “The NEO-PI-R: Professional Manual.” Psychological
Assessment Resources, 1992.
Digman, John M. “Personality Structure: Emergence of the Five-Factor Model.” Annual Review
of Psychology, vol. 41, 1990, pp. 417-440.
Fiske, Donald W. “Consistency of the Factorial Structures of Personality Ratings from Difference
Sources.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 44, 1949, pp. 329-344.
Jang, Kerry J., John Livesley, and Philip A. Vernon. “Heritability of the Big Five Personality
Dimensions and Their Facets: A Twin Study.” Journal of Personality, vol. 64, no. 3, 1996, pp.
John, Oliver P., Avshalom Caspi, Richard W. Robins, Terrie E. Moffitt, and Magda StouthamerLoeber. “The ‘Little Five’: Exploring The Nomological Network of the Five-Factor Model of
Personality in Adolescent Boys.” Child Development, vol. 65, 1994, pp. 160-178.
John, Oliver P., Laura P. Naumann, and Christopher J. Soto. “Paradigm Shift to the Integrative
Big Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Conceptual Issues.” Handbook of
Personality: Theory and Research, 3rd ed., edited by Oliver P. John, Richard W. Robins, and
Lawrence A. Pervin, The Guilford Press, 2008, pp. 114-158.
John, Oliver P. and Sanjay Srivastava. “The Big Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and
Theoretical Perspectives.” Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2nd ed., edited by
Lawrence A. Pervin, and Oliver P. John, The Guilford Press, 1999, pp. 102-138.
McAdams, Dan P. “Can Personality Change? Levels of Stability and Growth In Personality Across
the Life Span.” Can Personality Change? edited by Todd F. Heatherton and Joel L. Weinberger,
American Psychological Association, 1994, pp. 299-313.
McAdams, Dan. The Person: An Introduction to the Science of Personality Psychology. 5th ed.,
Wiley, 2008.
Measelle, Jeffrey R., Oliver P. John, Jennifer C. Ablow, Philip A. Cowan, and Carolyn P. Cowan.
“Can Children Provide Coherent, Stable, and Valid Self-Reports on the Big Five Dimensions? A
Longitudinal Study from Ages 5 to 7.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 89,
2005, pp. 90-106.
Roberts, Brent W., Kate E. Walton, and Wolfgang Viechtbauer. “Patterns of Mean-Level Change
in Personality Traits Across the Life Course: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies.”
Psychological Bulletin, vol. 132. No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-35.
Van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M. and Gerbert J. T. Haselager. “The Big Five Personality Factors in QSort Descriptions of Children and Adolescents.” The Developing Structure of Temperament and
Personality From Infancy to Adulthood, edited by Charles F. Halverson, Gedolph A. Kohnstamm,
and Roy P. Martin, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994, pp. 293-318.

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