Write an Essay based on different terms and on one article.You have to use all the words in bold to write an essay. you must also base yourself on one of the articles (see document)Opportunity to Make-up for the Midterm
Below find a list of some of the important concepts that we covered in class. They were presented I
question format for the midterm. Please review these concepts and write an essay and submit it by
March 5th via email. My email address is: firstname.lastname@example.org. You will find the instructions for
this essay after the list. So please read until the end.
1. What is “the scientific study of human activity in society or more specifically the study of the
social forces that influence or pressure people to behave, respond, or think in certain ways”?
2. What is “the ever-increasing flow of goods, services, money, people, technology, information,
and other cultural items across national borders”? globalization
3. What is “the process by which a locality embraces, adapts to, or resists a product, an idea, a way
of behaving that has come to them in the cross-national flow”? It is also when something unique
to locality is launched on a path toward globalization. glocalization
4. What is known as “a quality of mind that allows people to see how remote and impersonal
social forces shape their life story or biography”? sociological imagination
5. What is known as “personal needs, problems, or difficulties brought on by individual
shortcomings related to motivation, attitude, ability, character, or judgment”? troubles
6. What is “a matter that can be explained only by factors outside an individual’s control and
immediate environment”? issues
7. Sociology emerged as a reaction to what? Industrial revolution
This is an ongoing and still evolving social force that transformed and is still transforming
society, human behavior, and interaction in incalculable ways.
8. Who are the founding fathers of sociology? Give at least two names. Marx, Weber, Comte,
9. What theory defines society as a system of interrelated, interdependent parts? Each part is
interdependent and functions to maintain a larger system. Functionalism
10. What are intended or anticipated effects that a part has on the existing social order? Manifest
11. What are unintended or unanticipated effects that a part has on the existing order? Latent
12. What is the theory that asks the question who benefits from a particular social arrangement,
and at whose expense? Conflict theory
13. This theory focuses on social interaction and related concepts of self-awareness/reflexive
thinking, symbols, and negotiated order. Symbolic interactionism
14. What method do sociologists adhere to? Scientific method
15. Why do researchers gather data? To test their hypothesis
16. What is a group to which a person belongs to, identifies, admires, and/or feels loyalty? In-group
17. What is the process by which people develop a sense of self and learn the ways of the society in
which they live? socialization
18. What are agents of socialization? Name at least two. Significant others, primary groups, ingroups and out-groups, and institutions
19. What are everyday encounters in which people communicate, interpret, and respond to each
other’s words and actions? Social interaction
20. What are social statuses that are the result of chance in that people exert no effort to obtain
them? A person’s birth order, race, biological sex, and age are examples. Ascribed status
21. What are social statuses acquired through some combination of personal choice, effort, and
ability. A person’s marital status, occupation, and educational attainment are examples.
22. What is the model in which social interaction can be viewed as if it were a theater, people as if
they were actors, and roles as if they were performances before an audience? Dramaturgical
23. What is an organizational structure put in place to achieve some valued goal by using the most
efficient means to coordinate human activity? Bureaucracy
24. What is the process in which thought and action rooted in custom, emotion, or respect for
mysterious forces is replaced by instrumental-rational thought and action? Rationalization
25. What is “the process by which the principles of the fast food restaurant are coming to dominate
more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world” (Ritzer 1993. p. 1)?
McDonaldization of society
26. Reliability is the extent to which an operational definition gives consistent results.
27. What kind of an approach do sociologists take when studying deviance?
28. Validity is the degree to which an operational definition measures what it claims to measure.
29. Positivism is a theory stating that valid knowledge about the world can be derived only from
sense experience or knowing the world through the senses of sight, touch, taste, smell, and
hearing, and from empirical associations.
30. Role strain is a predicament in which there are contradictory or conflicting role expectations
associated with a single status.
Write a 3-5 page (double spaced) essay covering the concepts of the midterm. Use at least half of the
concepts asked in the midterm to complete this assignment and supplicate your essay with additional
concepts discussed in class when relevant. Highlight the concepts in your essay. Choose at least three of
the articles below to complete this assignment. You may also use other relevant articles as long as you
cite them to strengthen your essay.
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