Write a paper that states your position in regards to which social institution (chapters 4-8 of the iBook) is most influential in modern U.S. culture and which is least influential. Please note that this is a positionpaper, not merely an opinionpaper. Your assertions should be supported by research. Included in your paper should be a discussion of what at least one of the theorists discussed so far (Marx, Engels, Ehrenreich, Weber, Mead, or Goffman) would say about your position and why. The paper should also include a brief reflexivity portion, assessing how your subject position likely impacted your position.Your sources should include scholarly journals (at least one), newspaper articles, international organizations websites, and other academically reputable materials related to the subject.< Student 10:42 AM 1 * 10% 4 Family By Debra L. Ainbinder, Ph.D. and Daniela Santos, M.S. ANALYSIS QUESTIONS · How do you define family? • What is the main difference between the family of orientation and the family of procreation? • What is the best way to distinguish family patterns in different cultures? What are the varying configurations of a family? • Explain how race, ethnicity, and gender roles influence the family unit. Think about this: who or what do you include in your family? Do you agree with the US Census Bureau definition of family as “two or more individuals related by birth, marriage, or adoption who share a residence” (para. 1)? Perhaps you identify more with Thompson and Hickey's definition of family as “two or more people who are related by blood, marriage or adoption or who are part of a relationship in which there is commitment, mutual aid and support, and, often, a shared residence” (2005, p. 370)? Clearly, different definitions of family exist throughout the world and among individuals. Maybe you agree with an official definition, or maybe you have a completely different idea of what constitutes a family. Some people include family pets in their definition. Many believe that family is not strictly about genetics but more about relationships and support from others. The fact is that diversity among families is becoming more common and this has been attributed to personal understandings of family, personal meanings given to these relationships and the differences that exist in every society (Macionis, 2005). The traditional family system has undergone modifications and now exists in many forms. These can include: 48 < Student 10:42 AM 4 * 9% 4 a senior citizen with his/her pet(s) society has families whom individuals refer to as their a same-sex couple and their natural and adopted kin, these structures change depending on culture and show differences throughout history (Macionis, 2005). children Cultural Context a single-parent family a couple raising their niece and nephew Since family patterns change from culture to culture, we can distinguish them by observing the relative a small group of soldiers fighting in a foreign country emphasis societies place on kin and marital What other family configurations would you add? relationships (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). Two types of family are nuclear family Sociologists distinguish and extended family. Nuclear two types of families: the families consist of parents family of orientation and the and children living apart from family of procreation. These other kin, while extended families have their own rules, families go on to include roles and relationships aunts, uncles, grandparents (Thompson and Hickey). The and other relatives, who may family of orientation is the live in one household or family you are born into, nearby. whereas the family of procreation is defined as the Looking at family family that forms from diversity globally, we see marriage when having or countless examples of how adopting children (Thompson Some people think of pets as part of the family. sex, marriage and family Here is Bo Obama. and Hickey, 2005). Family ties definitions vary. Not more are also known as kinship than a hundred years ago, and even though every the majority of Americans 49 < Student 10:42 AM 4 * 9% 4 REFLECT! How do you think of marriage? Do you see any constraints on who you can marry? If so, where do these come from? In modern industrial societies, monogamy is most common and individuals choose their mate. They consider strong physical and emotional attachments key for successful marriage (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). Countries with high divorce rates usually engage in serial monogamy, where people have different partners, one at a time (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). All societies set norms for controlling marriage, divorce and other social believed men had irrepressible sex drives, while women had none (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). Observing today's Middle East, we might say people there believe the opposite that women have the greater sex drive (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). Societies provide norms and expectations for marriage. These customs or standards are based on strongly held cultural beliefs about marriage and family. Some societies practice exogamy, requiring individuals to marry outside their social category. More pre- industrial societies practice endogamy, where individuals find partners within a specific social category (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). A more controversial practice is polygamy: one husband taking multiple wives (or, less commonly, one wife taking multiple husbands). This controversy has many aspects, including being considered a human rights violation. Polygamous marriages are most common in countries that are dominated by groups where this is acceptable. Past cultures such as the ancient Egyptians, Incas and Hawaiians practiced customs of allowing father- daughter or brother-sister marriages (Thompson an Hickey, 2005). Today, these types of unions would be considered an incest taboo. Then again, social definitions of close relatives change from culture to culture. Selina Keipert Master's student in Psychology and Graduate Assistant Selina Keipert explains family from a Central-European perspective 50 < Student 10:42 AM 4 * 9% 4 with norms and values, providing economic support, satisfying emotional needs, and providing a sense of belonging (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). Ecological adaptations, from the functionalist perspective, emerged to enhance individual and social survival. These take on many forms, including polygamy, child betrothal, same- sex marriage, et cetera (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). Social Class issues In general, Hispanics are very family oriented. Daniela Santos explains family from a Hispanic perspective institutions. Keep in mind that these cultural beliefs come from ecological and historical contexts and going beyond the unusual and superficial differences we find societies practice a more limited array of norms and principles (Thompson and Hickey, 2005). We are more alike than different. In terms of family, social class or socioeconomic status (SES) categories are predefined based on socially constructed ideas. These ideas come from a social structure or order devised to define individuals' group status. Social class may be the basis for the definition of family. Social status influences opportunities of, and sets limits upon, a family system. Macionis (2005) defines social class as a family's financial security and the economic and social prospects of its members. The effects of social class become clear when you look at the future of the family, specifically the children of a family. For the most part, children that grow up in a higher social class will enjoy superior physical and mental health, increased self-confidence, and higher success and accomplishment rates than children born into what is considered a lower social class (Macionis, 2005). Function of Family in Society Why do families exist? From a functionalist perspective, families form the foundation of society because they achieve different basic and universally vital functions. Some functions include reproduction, childcare, regulating sexual activity, socializing children 51 Purchase answer to see full attachment

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