At its most basic level, a network is a means by which two computers can communicate with each other. This could be accomplished by stringing a network cable directly from the first to the second machine and configuring the operating systems on each properly. Within a workplace this is impractical, particularly since a single computer may need to connect to more than one other machine.
Local Area Networks (LANs)
The most common way to build a network is to construct a local area network (LAN) using networking equipment such as switches and hubs. On a LAN, all the computers and servers that are connected to the common infrastructure are able to communicate with one another, although it cannot be assumed that they can communicate with computers on other LANs. In order to do that, a router must be configured to link the LAN to either an Internet Service Provider or another LAN.
Some features of LANs to remember are:

Often restricted to a single physical location
Requires a switch (most common) or a hub to connect each device
May provide very fast connectivity relative to other environments
In some business environments LANs may be restricted by a firewall or completely disconnected from the Internet for security reasons

Wide Area Networks (WANs)
For a large organization that may have several LANs, routers and similar devices may be used to create a Wide Area Network (WAN). WANs are used to connect LANs and similar networks in order to make private information systems available to people throughout the organization. When WANs are constructed for permanent use advanced network technologies such as leased lines, ATM, frame really, or ISDN may be used to connect one LAN to the next.
Some features of a WAN to remember are:

Used to connect more than one physical location
Requires additional network equipment, typically using routers at each location
Requires special connections such as leased lines
Typically provides much slower connectivity than LAN connections

In modern business networks, it is common to accommodate workers who are traveling or who wish to access information systems from their homes by extending the WAN to them temporarily. Dial-up connections used to be the only way to accomplish this, although this worked by permitting a user to connect via a phone line directly to a server on a specific LAN. More common today is a Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection, which permits the user to connect over the public Internet and establish a secure tunnel through which it is possible to access private information services.
When planning to install an important information system on a local area network, it is critical that some approach be planned for measuring the quality of service that the users should be able to expect from that service. Because of the dependencies involved in a complex information system – server performance, network performance, availability of electricity, for example – different measures must be used in order to form a complete picture of how well the service is working. These finite measures may guide the IT staff and the organization as a whole towards making decisions about upgrades, improvements, and other changes.
Calculating Uptime
Uptime is a measure of the availability of a specific service, regardless of dependencies. This is often the most important metric that system administrators track because it is a clear indication of to what degree they’ve been able to provide their services to the end users. Uptime is typically calculated as a percentage of time per week. A system whose uptime is 99.7%, therefore, is only down for 30 minutes per week:
(7 days x 24 hours x 60 minutes ) * .003 = 30.24 minutes
More often than not uptime is established as a target expectation, and may be expressed as a technical requirement when building a new system. Doing so allows the people who are designing a complex information system to plan for the need for redundant systems so that the uptime target is achievable.
Calculating Network Performance
Because most information systems are accessed via the local area network, it is valuable to measure the capabilities of that network to see its impact on the quality and availability of those systems. Network performance is typically measured in these terms:
Capacity – The actual capability of the network to carry data. Expressed in bits per second (bps).
Utilization – The percentage of the capacity of the network being used over a specific period of time.
Throughput – The quantity of error-free traffic sent over the network. On a perfect network this value would be the same as the capacity, but too many additional factors affect data transmission for this to be possible. The most common measurement of throughput is packets per second (PPS).
Module 09 Written Assignment – Calculating Uptime
Based on what you’ve learned this week, answer the following questions in a 2-4 page document:

What percentage of uptime annually will your facility’s servers deliver if your IT staff takes them offline for maintenance every Sunday for three hours? Show how you arrived at this value.
Describe the factors that influence the decision to set maintenance windows for IT services in a healthcare facility, and what the impact of such a maintenance window would be.
Consider that the IT staff has indicated that the three-hour maintenance window each week is mandatory. Propose a means by which your facility could increase uptime to 100%.

Module 09 Course Project – Support and Maintenance Requirements Draft (Course Project Part 4)
Prepare a set of requirements for the course project case that describes the support and maintenance needs for the EHRS system after its deployment. These requirements should address how both the end users and the system itself should be supported. Include considerations of help desk functions, software updates and staff training for the system.
Your paper should be 3-5 pages in length.
Welcome to Week 9!!!
This week we are focusing on intranet networking and systems maintenance. In your lesson, you will discover LAN, WAN, uptime calculation, and network performance calculation. Preparation and mastering these terms and concepts are vital for the success of your assignments this week!
Your assignment rubrics are below.
Module 09 Course Project – Support and Maintenance Requirements Draft (Course Project Part 4)
Scoring Rubric:
Provides requirements that specifically address the maintenance and support of an EHRS
Requirements statements use specific, observable terminology Including consideration of help desk, software updates and staff training
The needs of the case project organization are uniquely addressed
Module 09 Written Assignment – Calculating Uptime
Scoring Rubric:
Uptime percentage correctly calculated for item #1
Accurately described the technical and organizational factors affecting decisions regarding maintenance windows
Uptime proposal includes valid technical and organizational changes

Calculating Uptime – A HINT
Posted on Mar 1, 2020 8:00:00 AM
You can find the percentage of uptime by using the following formula.
Uptime/(Uptime + Downtime) x 100
Finding uptime for 1 hour.
If a system is up for 55 minutes and down for 5, your formula would look like the following:
55/(55+5) x 100 = 91.67%
Finding uptime for one day.
The system is down for 2 hours on Monday.
There are 24 hours in a day so that means the system was only up for 22 hours on Monday. Your formula would look like the following:
22 / (22+2) x 100 = 91.67%
For your assignment this week, you are looking to calculate the uptime for the entire year. Your assignment states that the system is down every Sunday for 3 hours. You will need to know:

How many Sundays are in a year (not counting leap year) (you will need this to calculate the downtime hours)
How many hours there are in a year (not counting leap year)
How many hours the system is up and running in a year. (uptime)


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