Due in 12 hoursAttachedDiseases of the Female Reproductive System
Tissue deteriation and function impairment due to disease
Inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervix
Ectopic endometrium located in various sites throughout the pelvis or in the abdominal wall
Problems will arise at the time of menstruation. Swelling, bleeding, and intense pain occur due to the tissue attempting to slough off as in the uterus at menstruation.
Occurs in pregnant women usually during the third trimester
Characterized by edema of the extremities and face, high blood pressure and high albuminuria.
Could be caused by toxemia of pregnancy (there are not really any toxins in the body)
Can lead to convulsions, coma, and death (Eclampsia) NOTE: Preeclampsia is caused by this, it is not the same thing.
Fallopian (Uterine) Tubes
Inflammation of the fallopian tubes
If this occurs bilaterally and is not treated properly, scar tissue may form and close off the tube causing sterility.
Tubal, Ectopic or Extrauterine Pregnancy
When a fertilized ovum attaches to the wall of the fallopian tube or abdominal surface
Embryo will die from lack of blood supply.
It may then calcify forming a lithopedion (stone child)
For an abdominal pregnancy to occur, the egg must have been fertilized before it reaches the fallopian tube and then not enter the tube.
Diseases of the Female Reproductive System
Inflammation of the ovaries
Numerous cysts on or in the ovaries
A cysts containing elements of hair, teeth or skin. Commonly seen in the ovaries and testes.
Inflammation of the Vagina
Can be caused by
· A gonococcal infection
· Mechanical irritations such as tight panty hose
· Chemical irritations and highly irritating uterine discharges.
· Yeast infections – Caused by the fungus
Candida albicans. Commonly seen as a complication of antibiotic therapy. The normal flora bacteria of the vagina are destroyed, allowing the fungus to grow.
A condition of septicemia following childbirth
Caused by hemolytic streptococcus
Infection is usually spread by contaminated obstetrical instruments. More common in the past.
Inflammation of the mammary glands
Cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma
A common tumor of the ovaries
Most commonly affect the cervix
Cervical cancers are one of the most common malignancies of women worldwide. Usually sDiseases of the Urinary System
A decrease in the amount of urine excreted.
May include kidney failure
Complete suppression of urine excretion
Indicates total kidney failure
An increase in the amount of urine excreted
Usually an indication of problems somewhere in the body other than the kidneys. Such as diabetes insipidus
The presence of albumin or protein in urine
Often associated with glomerulonephritis.
Hemoglobin in the urine
Associated with hemolytic anemias. Occurs due to certain poisons, snake bites, and malaria.
Blood in the urine
An important sign in tumors of the urinary system.
Also associated with glomerulonephritis.
Pus in the urine
Indicates a urinary tract infection
Sugar in the urine
Associated with diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes)
The toxic condition of excess urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood
Associated with renal insufficiency or failure. NOTE: Urine or urea in the blood will increase formaldehyde demand.
Diseases of the Kidneys
A general term for inflammation of the kidney
A form of nephritis in which the lesions affect primarily the glomeruli.
The glomeruli are the filtering capillaries of the kidney. Often follows a previous streptococcal infection. Especially those of the upper respiratory tract
Inflammation of the renal pelvis.
The expanded upper part of the ureter.
Inflammation of the kidney substance and pelvis. Most common kidney disease.
(Pyelitis and Pyelonephritis are caused by pyogenic bacteria that enter the kidney by way of the bloodstream or due to bacteria that have ascended from the bladder after entering through the urethra)
A collection of urine in the renal pelvis due to an obstructed outflow. .
Hydroureters – The ureters above an obstruction dilated with urine
a formation of renal calculi – stones are also called kidney stones or nephroliths.
Stones are formed from mineral salts that precipitate out of the urine solution. Formed due to kidney inflammation, dietary problems, or hyperparathyoidism.
Diseases of the Urinary System
Inflammation of the ureters. Tube that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Causes constriction and narrowing
Inflammation of the urinary bladder
Usually occurs secondary to ascending urinary tract infections.
Inflammation of the urethra Tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
Ureteritis, CystitisProbate Law
Funeral Service Law – Walker
Uniform Probate Code
: a model law intended to achieve uniformity in probate proceedings throughout the U.S.
Created in 1969 by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL)
Amended in 1990 as a model code that states could adopt to standardize probate laws.
Entire code adopted by 18 states.
Other states have adopted parts of the code.
Uniform Probate Code – Adopted in Full
A written instrument prepared in the form prescribed by law that provides for the disposition of a person’s property and takes effect after death.
47 states recognize “maker” to be a minimum of 18
Some southern states set ages from 14-16
Texas – 18 years of age
Know the nature of the act of making a will.
Know the natural objects of his/her bounty.
Know the nature, extent, and value of his/her property.
Understand the disposition
Signed by Testator/Testatrix
Testator : a person who makes a valid will.
Number of Witnesses Varies by State
Special Kinds of Wills
Holographic – written entirely in longhand by the testator/testatrix
Nuncupative – oral Will declared by the testator in the presence of witnesses, made during the testator’s last illness. It only applies to personal property.
Soldiers and sailors – military personnel can typically dispose of personal property orally or written without complying with formalities required of other wills.
Revocation by Act of Testator/Testatrix
:the omission or cancellation of an instrument, act, license or promise.
Revocation by Operation of Law
Marriage or Remarriage
Birth of Children/Adoption
: an addition or amendment of a last will and testament.
Must be dated, signed and witnessed and executed just as a will would be.
Must make reference to the will it amends.
Can add to, subtract from or modify the terms of the original will.
Distribution Problems Under the Will
Death of Heir
Spouse’s Election to Take Against the Will
: a proportional reduction in a monetary bequest because of insufficient funds (if the testator makes bequests of money in the will and the estate does not have enough money to pay the bequests, then the legatees will receive a proportionate share of the bequests).
: the extinction or withdrawal of a legacy under a will by an act equivalent to revocation (if the testator makes bequests of specific property and the estate does not have the property at death, the legatee receives nothing).
Spouse’s Election to Take Against the Will
a spouse may elect to take that share of property that would have been received had the deceased
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