1. View the attached powerpoint case study. In the last 2 slides, answer the question 5-7 (keep 1-4 out. My friend do it). Keep them separate. an answer for each question.
2. Research and review the “Whole Community” Planning principles. Extend your research into week 9 describing the purpose and goal of this planning method. List 3 considerations that you would now include in your preparation for response (think globally as an expanding event).
– Stilp, R. and Bevelacqua, A.; Emergency Medical Response to Hazardous Material Incidents, ISBN-10: 0-8273-7829-7 DELMAR CENGAGE Learning. (Chapters 7, 9, and 11).
– Noll, Hilderbrand, and Yvossa Hazardous material: Managing the incident 4th ed. (chapters 8).
– Cashman; Emergency Response Handbook for Chemical and Biological Agents and Weapons, second edition, ISBN 978-1-4200-5265-7 (CRC Press). (Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, and 15).
– Research and review Project Bio-Shield.
You are co-located in your employment with
the 911 dispatch center.
Starting July 4th, you note that the dispatch
center seems to be increasingly busy with
complaints of fever, headache, and cough.
About July 8th, the hospitals in an area of
town that boasts an amusement park and
picnic grove are on “divert” to EMS, as the
activate their “surge” program internally.
An increase in requests for EMS from primary
care providers is noted. Chest pain, cough,
and hypoxemia are prevalent. Ventilators are
The Department of Health has begun their
investigation, and has requested CDC
Epidemiological Intelligence Service Teams
assistance, as several counties are now
reporting similar “syndromes”
A large number of primary cases appear to
have visited the amusement park during the
hot summer days around July 4.
◦ Most have acknowledged using the cooling
sprinkler during those visits.
◦ The nursing home in the same water district has
experienced an increased hospital admission rate
and moderate increased death rate
◦ Children and infirm residents in the same area are
also common hospitalized patients.
1. What “type’ of Hazardous Material/WMD
agent might this scenario represent?
2. Epidemiological surveillance has identified a
common “vector”. What might that be?
3. What agent might be implicated based on
the clinical picture?
4. How could this syndrome be altered?
5. What would the EOC do to facilitate the
6. A team is dispatched to investigate your
presumed sources. What protective strategies
would you recommend?
7. What “investigations”, “assessments”, or
instruments would you recommend?
What“type’ of Hazardous Material/WMD agent might this scenario represent?
Biological agent (bacteria) (Cashman, 2008)
Epidemiological surveillance has identified a common “vector.” What might that
o The common vector could be confusing with a number of viral, bacteria, and fungal infections.
According to the CDC (2015), anthrax can be found from natural soil, plants, or water that can
affect domestic and wild animals globally.
3. What the agent might be implicated based on the clinical picture?
o Bacteria nerve agent called Anthrax. The case study narrows down to the water that was
contaminated in the main water line district. The first case was coming from the amusement
park. Afterward, other cases then occurred from nursing homes, and children and infirm
residents in the same are. Therefore, the root cause was the main water line was contaminated
after it has been filtered from the treatment center before entering the town.
4. How could this syndrome be altered?
o Anthrax can infect people when its spores enter a person’s body, which then activates toxins to
cause severe illness. From the case study, it seems people got infected through ingestion and
inhalation. Here are the symptoms for the 2 routes of entry:
▪ Fever and chills
▪ Chest Discomfort
▪ Shortness of breath
▪ Confusion or dizziness
▪ Nausea, vomiting, or stomach pains
▪ Sweats (often drenching)
▪ Extreme tiredness
▪ Body aches
▪ Fever and chills
▪ Swelling of neck or neck glands
▪ Sore throat
▪ Painful swallowing
▪ Nausea and vomiting, especially bloody vomiting
▪ Diarrhea or bloody diarrhea
▪ Flushing (red face) and red eyes
▪ Stomach pain
▪ Swelling of the abdomen (stomach)
What would the EOC do to facilitate the response phase?
The fire department should arrive on the scene first and direct them to activate EOC with the
following procedures down below:
Isolate and secure
Establish control zones
Initiate notifications (state/federal/assisting agencies/specialized agencies, law enforcement, and
Request additional resources
Use necessary defensive measures (time/distance/shielding, proper protective equipment,
minimize the number of responders exposed to danger, etc.)
Initiate Public Safety Measures (rescue, evacuate, protect in place)
Establish water supply, control and isolate patients in a safe area
Coordinate activities with law enforcement
Establish triage to treat victims
Establish gross mass decontamination operations
As the incident progress, initiate the Unified Command System
Establish command post to include Law enforcement, public health, EMS, emergency
management, and public works.
Establish and maintain chain of custody for evidence protection
(Cashman, 2008, p.
Research and review the “Whole Community” Planning principles. Extend your research into week 9
describing the purpose and goal of this planning method. List 3 considerations that you would now
include in your preparation for response (think globally as an expanding event).
The whole community approach is to have an overall understanding for residents, emergency
management practitioners, organizational and community leaders and government officials to
assess the needs to have a strong community. The goal for a whole community approach is:
Shared understanding of community needs and capabilities
Greater empowerment and integration of resources from across the community
Stronger social infrastructure
Establishment of relationships that facilitate more effective prevention, protection, mitigation,
response, and recovery activities
Increased individual and collective preparedness
Greater resiliency at both the community and national levels
(FEMA, 2011, p.
From the Whole Community Principles, there are 3 considerations that I would include
for preparation in response to this case study:
Recognize the community capabilities and needs
Understand community complexity
Foster relationships with community leaders
Cashman, R. J. ( 2008). Emergency response handbook for chemical and biological
agents and weapons (2nd ed.). CRC Press Taylor
CDC (2014). Symptoms. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/symptoms.html
CDC (2015). What is anthrax? Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/index.html
FEMA (2011). Whole community approach to emergency management: Principles,
themes, and pathways for action. Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/media-librarydata/20130726-1813-25045-0649/whole_community_dec2011__2_.pdf
What “type’ of Hazardous Material/WMD agent might this scenario
The scenario presented on the PP presentation for week 9, could be best
described as biological agent. Biological agents are those toxins, bacteria,
viruses, fungi that can affect a large population as they are mainly passed
person to person and it is most commonly spread via airborne particles.
2. Epidemiological surveillance has identified a common “vector”. What
might that be?
2.a) A vector is best defined as the carrier of a disease or how a sickness is
2.b) This is very hard to say because some of the signs that the patients are
displaying can be a number of things. These signs can be indicative of an array
of bacterial or viral infections. If it is bacterial it can be treated and if it is viral
it will have to weight to run its course.
What agent might be implicated based on the clinical picture?
Utilizing current events, this can be a case of the Coronavirus. As best described
by the CDC, “The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes
has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”). (CDC)
This viral deadly version of mutated flu, leads to death as a result of respiratory
How could this syndrome be altered?
As previously explained in the previous question, COVID-19 can spread via
human contact and via airborne. Some of the signs and symptoms are those that
coincide with the seasonal flu. Runny nose, shortness of breath, fever and chills.
(CDC) In the event this was spread in the amusement park, one can think about the
main water break as a big possibility as most of the affected groups have the water
supply in common.
What would the EOC do to facilitate the response phase?
This is a hard event to manage just because of the spread and according to the
PowerPoint presentation, a few days have elapse between event and recovery.
Subsequently, one must reach out to the media, make individuals aware of this
event and have them take the proper precautions. I would also secure the park and
request potable water screening as soon as possible.
A team is dispatched to investigate your presumed sources. What
protective strategies would you recommend?
If I was the disease control person for my department I would meet with
stakeholders of the community to formulate a plan to prevent spread and
provide treatment. I would contact OEM, CDC (epidemiological intelligence),
and meet with local hospitals.
7. What “investigations”, “assessments”, or instruments would you
As far as the investigation or assessments are concern I would let the
professionals from the CDC investigate while providing them all of the need they
need to community compliance.
Second set of questions.
Research and review the “Whole Community” Planning principles. Extend
your research into week 9 describing the purpose and goal of this planning
The whole community Doctrine was Published on December 1st, 2011. This
Doctrine present the foundation for increasing preparedness and having all of the
member of the community be invested in it. As explained by FEMA, “The
document is intended to promote greater understanding of the approach and to
provide a strategic framework to guide all members of the emergency management
community as they determine how to integrate Whole Community into their daily
List 3 considerations that you would now include in your preparation for response
(think globally as an expanding event).
With regards to this case, 3 considerations with the whole community approach in
mind are as follow.
Plan for incidents or outbreaks before they happen.
Involve as many members of the community to place responsibility on them.
Conduct drills, training and educate community.
Cashman, R. (2008.) Emergency response handbook for chemical and biological
agents and weapons
CDC. (2019.) Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Summary. (2020, March
3). Retrieved March 5, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019ncov/summary.htm
FEMA, (2011) A Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management:
Principles, Themes, and Pathways for Action. (2011, December 1). Retrieved
March 5, 2020, from https://www.fema.gov/medialibrary/assets/documents/2378
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