I need an explanation for this Law question to help me study.

How do the concepts of Peters and Waterman and Jan Carlzon apply today? Describe the evolutionary stages that the Client-Oriented service concepts have gone through to bring what is considered the best approach today.  Discuss how these concepts will continue to be considered best in the future?  Do you agree or disagree that they will be best in the future?  As a criminal justice administrator, how would you overcome the obstacles or challenges to implement the Client-Oriented service approach?  Explain.© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR RESALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Applying Client-Oriented Service
to the Administration of Criminal
Justice Agencies
This chapter will explore the theme that is guiding administrators
M now and into the foreseeable future.
The fifth theme, Client-Oriented service, started in the latter part of the 20th century and has continued
M and future criminal justice agencies is
into this century. The application of this theme to contemporary
where we begin in this chapter. To set the stage, historical key
Y milestone concepts will provide a starting
point for the discussion of the application of Client-Oriented service.

Importance of employee–customer contacts
1987, Moments of Truth, Jan Carlzon
Focus on customer service
1983, In Search of Excellence, Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman
In the 1960s, attention was on the Open Systems concept, and in the 1970s, the focus was on Social
Equity. In the 1980s, the focus of administrators moved to the people being served—or to the “clients,”
T best-selling publication, In Search of
as they were called in the private sector. Peters and Waterman’s
Excellence, spotlighted how successful private businesses were
Scustomizing services to the desires of their
Several years after the publication of this book, Peters produced a training video, Excellence in the
Public Sector. In the training video, Peters visited five public sector agencies to demonstrate how the
excellence qualities found in the private sector could be transferred to the public sector. One of the five
agencies he visited was the New York City Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). DJJ provided pretrial
detention for 5,000 children each year and aftercare services for 1,000 children. Many of these juveniles
were arrested and detained while waiting for a court appearance.
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Eclectic Perspective
Social Equity
Open Systems
Employee Relations
M Organization Functions
Figure 11.1
Filing Cabinet of the Five Contextual Themes for “Mentally” Retrieving Historic Key Concepts
and Terms Relating to the Client-Oriented Theme
The organization challenge was to provide
T a system of services for detained juveniles whose stays
varied from a few days to many months, and also to maintain supportive aftercare services. For years,
the agency had major organizational problems, a poor reputation, and low success in the rehabilitation
of juvenile offenders. Peters showed how getting criminal justice employees to work with juvenile detainees and parolees as “clients” or “customers” proved beneficial. Viewing the detainees as customers
with certain needs for specific services changed the juvenile justice agency into a successful enterprise
with a good reputation for reducing juvenile offender recidivism (Peters 1989).
Jan Carlzon wrote about his experience in taking over a failing airline corporation and making
it successful by concentrating on the service of employees when they came in direct contact with the
customers. He called these contacts “the moments of truth.” He found these moments much more
important in establishing the reputation of the corporation than high-profile advertising and public
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relations campaigns. This approach, developed in the private sector, became a major factor in the public
sector administration.
Client-Oriented Law Enforcement Service
A prime concern in the public sector during that period was Social Equity. This concern was a result
of the growing citizen distrust of the government, in general, and the police (as the most visible representatives of the government), in particular. The importance of crime prevention can be discussed
as an Open Systems concept. The importance of prevention was based on research that revealed that
the police seldom discover a crime in progress. When they do apprehend offenders, it is usually as the
result of information provided by the public. In preventing crime and in apprehending criminals, public
cooperation is of prime importance. If the public does not trust the police, gaining their cooperation
will be difficult.
During the 1960s and 1970s, a growing number of citizens viewed the police as too professional;
Tforce. The only contact that many citizens
they seemed to be more an occupying army than a protective
had with the police was when radio car officers responded toU
calls-for-services. These contacts were often
emotionally charged and cast officers in the role of enforcers. Public dissatisfaction with police services
could be seen in ballot measures that reduced tax supportR
for law enforcement. Crime increased and
police services were stretched to the limit. Police service became
N (in most cases) reactive rather than
proactive. Public trust of the police continued to diminish.
E the author, as a professor, asks students
In demonstrating the need for public trust in police work,
to envision someone they do not trust who has authorityR
over them. The students are asked if they
would do what that person ordered them to do. The students respond in the affirmative because of the
power that this authority figure has over them. Then the ,students are asked if they would volunteer
information to this authority figure they do not trust, for example, information that would help the
authority figure be successful. The students respond, “No way.” They are not inclined to help this authority figure be successful; in fact, they hope that he or sheTfails. The students are then asked to think
of the police in this light. If the police are viewed as only authority
figures not to be trusted, the public
will not come forward with the information needed to apprehend criminals and will not cooperate in
prevention efforts.
There was a realization that law enforcement, in the M
effort to become professional, had strayed
from the early U.S. philosophy of a shared community–police responsibility. This became a major topic
of discussion in the 1970s and 1980s. As a result, the attention of police administrators shifted to key
milestone publications and other business world research that was aimed at gaining client support and
trust. For example, the author, as a police administrator, modified
Jan Carlzon’s “moments of truth”
definition to fit law enforcement as described in the next section.
Anytime that the public comes into contact with the police1and judges (forms an opinion about) the
quality of service that they are receiving, that is where the real values and missions of policing come
T support.
through. That is the “moment of truth” that creates trust and
It is the patrol officers who respond to calls-for-service,Sthe traffic officers who write citations, and
“Moments of Truth” in Policing
the 9-1-1 telephone operators who are the first contact that most people have with the criminal justice
system. Proper selection, training, and motivating of these personnel are of prime importance for police
administrators in promoting Client-Oriented service.
Peters and Waterman’s emphasis on decentralizing service (to be “closer to the customer”)
was another factor in what became know as community policing. The police movement toward a Client-Oriented concept started in the 1970s (and even earlier in some agencies) and
moved through a number of approaches in the 1980s and 1990s. The evolution of concepts
through this period demonstrates how the fabric of each contextual theme is designed from many
Client-Oriented Law Enforcement Service
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Evolving Modes of Policing and the Contextual Themes Model
Policing Mode
Administrative Concepts
Watch & ward (1700s)
Watchman (1800s)
Peel Principles
Professionalism/legalistic (1900s)
Pendleton Act
Organization Functions
Employee Relations
Open Systems
Service-oriented (1970–)
Social Equity
Team policing (1970s)
attempts, modifications, and enhancements.
Table 11.1 displays the evolution of policing modes over
several centuries. The evolution of policing is shown here
in relationship to the evolution
of administrative themes and
concepts. The enlightenment
of the Open Systems period and
the pressures of the Social Equity
period caused police administrators to seek better methods
of promoting public trust. The
development of Client-Oriented
service went through a number
of stages.
PAC (2000s)
Eclectic Perspective
E Service in Law Enforcement
Evolutionary Stages of Client-Oriented
R were a product of the 1970s (and, in some agencies,
Community relations and press relations programs
the 1960s) and the first step in the evolution of Client-Oriented service. Police administrators imple,
mented community relations programs aimed at enhancing their public image. Another way of defining
COP/POP (1980/90s)
these programs was to “get the public to like the police.” Community relations and press relations officer
positions were created to facilitate this approach.
T Because police work is of much interest to the press (and
to the public, as indicated by the many television and movie productions relating to “police work”), the
A There is a natural conflict between the press and the
media has a key position in shaping public opinion.
police. The press wants all the information, and
Mthe police have to restrict the release of some information
that may jeopardize the investigations or prosecutions. Consequently, most agencies of any size selected
and trained certain personnel to function as M
liaisons with the press.
Community relations officers were specially
Y trained to present their agencies in the best possible
light. Some larger agencies hired public relation firms to assist in developing community relations programs. Departments used public displays, demonstrations, lectures, and television and radio messages
to inform citizens about police operations, crimes,
1 and crime prevention. Community relations officers
were available for speeches at community meetings and social gatherings.
A problem with this approach was that it often neglected Carlzon’s “moments of truth” concept.
It is not high-profile community relations programs
that formed public opinion but, rather, the direct
interaction of employees with the public being served.
Team policing was the next step in the Client-Oriented service approach. This approach, which Chief
T early 1970s, took Peters and Waterman’s decentralized
Edward M. Davis started in Los Angeles in the
“close to the customer” concept and applied
S it to policing. Davis also incorporated the “territorial
imperative” idea from a best-selling book of the day by Robert Ardrey (1966). Ardrey’s idea was that all living
organisms, from ants to humans, have a special territory that they protect and proclaim as “their turf.”
Davis used these concepts in deploying employees into basic-car districts, in which officers were
responsible for specific districts. The people in those districts became “their” people. Davis put it this
way: “If the policeman is white and the people he serves are black, he may think at first, ‘I don’t like black
people very much,’ and the black people may think at first, ‘We don’t like white cops very much.’ Yet
he’s their protector, and he knows that they are depending on him; and if they sit down and rap together
about how to protect the area, pretty soon the whiteness and the blackness disappear, and it become Us,
a feeling of unity” (Davis 1978, 136).
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These basic-car districts were groups of census tracts that were combined to conform to what community members felt were their neighborhoods. The districts were formed into teams, which led to the
development of team policing. The Los Angeles Police Department was divided into 80 teams. Each
team was headed by a lieutenant who had the authority and responsibility for patrol, traffic, and detective services in that team area. He or she was the “chief of police” for that territory under the concept of
decentralization and bringing the service “close to the customer.” Decisions that previously had to be
made at central command were now delegated to the local team commander.
Basic-car district officers established neighborhood watch programs, and Chief Davis can be credited
with this concept. Davis had basic-car district officers develop “block captains” who provided their homes
for neighborhood watch meetings, combining both the concepts of “territorial imperative” and getting
“close to the customer.” This approach involved gathering neighbors to meet periodically with their
basic-car district officers and share quality-of-life-related concerns. These meetings served to exchange
information that could reduce and prevent crime, help the police customize their services to neighborhood
needs, and promote a cooperative interaction between the police and the public. Team policing came to
Tless than a decade of operation. However,
an abrupt end because of political and financial reasons after
it served as a foundation for community policing and started
Uthe neighborhood watch program that has
continued into the 21st century.
Community-Oriented Policing (COP) was the next evolutionary
approach, and Lee Brown, then
the chief of police of the Houston Police Department in Texas,
be called the father of this
concept. As implemented in Houston, organizationally it was focused on the decentralizing of patrol
functions. The neighborhood watch concept from Davis’s team policing was incorporated as a major
R the patrol functions, he made it a phicomponent. Even though Brown’s COP revolved mainly around
losophy throughout the department.
The philosophy was not a new concept. In fact, it was a return to Sir Robert Peel’s 1830s principles
for the London Metropolitan Police. The Peel Principles of Policing (explained as follows) can rightfully
be called the “holy grail” of modern law enforcement.
To prevent crime and disorder, as an alternative to their M
repression by military force and by severity of
legal punishment.
To recognize always that the power of the police to fulfill their functions and duties is dependent on public
Ytheir ability to secure and maintain public
approval of their existence, actions, and behavior and on
Sir Robert Peel’s Policing Principles
3. To recognize always that to secure and maintain the respect and approval of the public means also the
securing of willing cooperation of the public in the task of1securing observance of laws.
To recognize always that the extent to which the cooperation
5 of the public can be secured diminishes, proportionately, the necessity of the use of physical force and compulsion for achieving police objectives.
To seek and to preserve public favor, not by pandering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating
1 of policy, and without regard to the justice
absolutely impartial service to law, in complete independence
or injustice of the substance of individual laws; by ready offering of individual service and friendship to
all members of the public without regard to their wealth or social standing; by ready exercise of courtesy
S sacrifice in protecting and preserving life.
and friendly good humor; and by ready offering of individual
To use physical force only when the exercise of persuasion, advice, and warning is found to be insufficient
to obtain public cooperation to an extent necessary to secure observance of law or to restore order; and to
use only the minimum degree of physical force which is necessary on any particular occasion for achieving
a police objective.
To maintain at all times a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that
the police are the public and that the public are the police; the police being only members of the public
who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen, in the interests
of community welfare and existence.
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8. To recognize always the need for strict adherence to police-executive functions, and to refrain from even
seeming to usurp the powers of the judiciary of avenging individuals or the state, and of authoritatively
judging guilt and punishing the guilty.
9. To recognize always that the test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, and not the
visible evidence of police action in dealing with them. (Reith 1948, 64–65)
Many contemporary police departments have adopted portions of these principles into their mission and value statements. The Management Principles of the Los Angeles Police Department (which
the author was involved in drafting) offers an example of how law enforcement has incorporated these
principles into Client-Oriented Policing. The focus shifted from the number of arrests to preventing
crime and disorder. The measure of effectiveness became “the absence of crime and disorder, and not
the visible evidence of police action (items 1 and 9 of Peel’s Principles). The heart of Peel’s Principles
(item 7) states that the “police are the public and that the public are the police; the police being only
members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every
citizen, in the interests of community welfare
T and existence.” This philosophy became the theme of
Community-Oriented Policing.
Chief Lee Brown added the “fear of crime” to Client-Oriented Policing. Brown pointed out that
Rjustified by the amount of crime. Furthermore, it is often
there is often more fear of crime than actually
the fear of crime that causes communities’ quality of life to deteriorate. This fear often causes people to
move to other neighborhoods. A later section in this chapter discusses a survey of a large inner-city area
under the topic of evaluating Client-OrientedEeffectiveness. It is mentioned here because it demonstrates
how the fear level can be greater than justified
R by the crime. In the survey, residents were asked which
crimes they feared most. Although they mentioned robberies and gang violence as crimes they feared
, they or their families had recently experienced. It was
most, many residents did not list these as crimes
found that their fears were based on what they heard from others and what they became aware of through
the news media and via visual indicators such as graffiti. Lee Brown made reducing fear of crime a part
T This effort included providing facts and rumor control
of the Community-Oriented Policing effort.
through neighborhood watch meetings and A
media releases.
Brown called his program Neighborhood-Oriented Policing (NOP). His philosophy was to change
Mwho would provide Client-Oriented service. He described
the police officer from an enforcer to an officer
his philosophy as follows:
Y to be viewed as someone who can provide help and asThe more desired perception is for the officer
sistance, someone who expresses compassion through emphasizing and sympathizing with victims of
crime, and someone who can organize community groups, inspire and motivate groups, and facilitate
1 of others. (Ottmeier and Brown 1988, 13)
and coordinate collective efforts and endeavors
5 policing incorporated a number of other approaches.
In addition to Peel’s Principles, community
One approach came from the milestone 1973
2Kansas City study that measured proactive, reactive, and
controlled patrol beats. This study found that when randomly applied, none of these tactics significantly
affect criminal activity. From this, directed 1
patrol developed, which focused officers on specific crime
problems during the time they were not responding
to calls-for-service. With community policing, these
specific crime problems were to be related to the neighborhoods being patrolled (Kelling, Dieckman,
and Brown 1974).
The broken windows theory (Wilson and Kelling 1982) was another concept that became part of
Community-Oriented Policing. In 1982, the concept was published as an analogy to describe the relationship between disorder and crime. A broken window left unrepaired shows others that no one cares
about the property, causing a chain reaction of events that deteriorate neighborhood quality of life.
W. Skogan later contributed to this theory, describing what he referred to as the “contagion proposition.” He wrote that certain disorders generate more disorder unless quickly controlled. Current levels of
disorder can produce future crime problems, fear of crime, victimization, and residential dissatisfaction
(Skogan 1996).
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Problem-Oriented Policing (POP) is a concept attributed to Herman Goldstein (1979). The concept incorporates the idea that law enforcement attempts to reduce crime problems should take on a
more scientific approach. These attempts should involve proactive policing strategies that focus on the
identification of underlying causes of problems, then select solutions to prevent a problem from recurring. This approach stemmed from the directed patrol concept of the Kansas City study, providing yet
another example of the evolution of Client-Oriented Policing. The concept was further related to a
number of underlying issues:
1. Traditional police responses to community problems had proven ineffective.
2. These responses had generally been reactive, and police rarely had made serious attempts to anticipate
and head off community problems.
3. In attempting to deal with community problems, the police generally had looked only to themselves
and had rarely enlisted the aid of other community institutions and resources.
4. The police response to the problems they confronted had been characterized by an over-reliance on
time in minutes, etc.) without regard to whether these quantitative
measures reflected the quality of
police service.
Because police and community situations and problems vary so greatly, no hard-and-fast set of rules
had been devised to guide performances in all situations.
Eshould finally be abandoned because even
The fiction that police officers do not exercise discretion
in the most rigid law enforcement–oriented police departments, officers exercise great discretion.
Like other professionals’ discretion, police discretion should be acknowledged and structured in
ways that more directly address the problems they are expected
to confront.
law enforcement.
5. Traditional measures of police performance had overemphasized numbers (arrests, tickets, response
9. Because police hold such broad authority, they must be held closely accountable for exercising it in
ways that best serve to address community problems. (Eck and Spelman 1987)
Throughout the history of law enforcement, selective enforcement has occurred. The police have
never been provided the resources to enforce all the laws.A
This is because of the general public’s fear
of a “police state,” where the police are equipped to enforceM
laws and regulations not supported by the
majority. Consequently, the police have always had to focus their limited resources where they thought
M concept of thinking “outside the box.”
they were most needed. POP brought forward the Open Systems
It also incorporated the idea of a “big Y, little x” approach, Y
in that it encouraged discretion but applied
measures of control in ensuring that the efforts of employees met community needs.
A major component of POP is known by the acronym SARA: scanning, analyzing, responding,
and assessing.
Scanning is the clustering of incidents into meaningful units. It is another word for the traditional
first step of problem solving: gathering the facts. The information gleaned can be divided into units by
behavior, location, persons, time, and events.
Analyzing is often considered the heart of the problem-solving
model because any mistakes made
here can lead to misguided responses. Determining the cause of problems is most important to developTof the problem, identifying all the persons
ing a resolution. Analysis includes identifying the magnitude
or groups involved or affected, identifying all the possibleS
causes of the problem, and constructing a
number of approaches from which to choose.
Responding is the approach that is most effective once the plan of action is clearly defined. It may
be simple (such as playing elevator-type music on the public address system to encourage gang members
not to congregate at a certain location) to quite involved (such as evicting tenants involved in drug trafficking from public housing). A website has been created whereby various policing agencies can exchange
responses to like problems.
Assessing is evaluating the effectiveness of the response. Traditional methods for evaluating include
numbers of arrests, reported crimes, response times, citizen complaints, field interviews, calls-for-services,
and clearance rates. More nontraditional and insightful methods include:
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Reduced instances or repeat victimization
Decreases in related crimes and incidents
Neighborhood indicators, which can include increased profits for businesses in the target area,
increased usage of the area, increased property values, less loitering and truancy, and fewer
abandoned cars
Increased citizen satisfaction regarding the handling of the problem (determined through
surveys, interviews, focus groups, electronic bulletin boards)
Reduced citizen fear related to the problem (Office of Community Oriented Policing
Services 2001)
Community policing has become more of a generic term that combines both Community-Oriented
and Problem-Oriented Policing. It is considered a department-wide philosophy that emphasizes the need
for partnership with the community. It includes proactive problem-solving efforts in order to promote
neighborhood quality of life and prevent and reduce those factors that cause crime. It involves strategic
and tactical elements that include fixed assignment
of officers to a particular shift or time and the decentralization of decision making to the levelU
at which the officers meet their “clients.” In summary, this
approach (which has taken policing into the 21st century) involves:
• Decentralizing services to specific neighborhoods
• Empowering employees and giving them
E responsibility and authority for specific neighborhoods
R share responsibility and authority for neighborhood
• Empowering residents and having them
quality of life
• Applying problem-solving approaches
• Evaluating success based on achieving goals that are mutually set by residents and employees
Table 11.2 compares the differences between what has been called “traditional policing” and comAdifferent approaches that are involved in contemporary
munity policing. The comparison reveals the
policing. These approaches are an importantM
part of the Eclectic Perspective approach to criminal justice
M (PAC) is a term that the author has introduced to dePolice accountability to the community
scribe the evolution of Client-Oriented Policing
Y in the first decade of the 21st century. The evolution
of policing reminds us that no approach is static. The community policing mode evolved from team
policing and was further enhanced by Problem-Oriented Policing. No approach can be considered the
final answer. Each approach is part of the continuing
effort to find better methods of policing in an
ever-changing environment.
To forecast the future of policing, one should reconsider the elements of social dynamics because
policing is influenced by social change. It is 2
useful here to revisit Alvin Toffler’s Three Waves of social
dynamics (Toffler 1980). In retrospect, we can see that the 2000s have not produced a working society
completely devoted to information and technology, as Toffler predicted. Rather, information and techT we depend on (as land and energy were in the preceding
nology have become the “physical element” that
periods of history). The “minds” of the employees
and customers have become the important human
element whereas muscle and dexterity were of prime importance in the past. The elements of successful
enterprise for the future appear to be:
Historical paradigms
Vital physical elements
Information and technology
Vital human elements
Service has emerged as the major theme of today’s occupations. What is service? It is tasks that our
ancestors did for themselves that we now pay others to do for us. Today, most working people have
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Traditional vs. Community Policing: Questions and Answers
Traditional Policing
Community Policing
Who are the police?
A government agency
principally responsible
for law enforcement.
The police are the public, and
the public are the police.
The police officers are those
who are paid to give full-time attention to the duties of
every citizen.
What is the relationship of
the police force to other
public service departments?
Priorities often conflict.
The police are one department,
among many, responsible for
improving the quality of life.
What is the role of the
To focus on solving crimes.
How is police efficiency
What are the highest
What, specifically, do police
deal with?
By detection and arrest rates.
Crimes that are high value
(e.g., bank robberies) andE
those involving violence.
To take a broader problemsolving approach.
By the absence of crime
and disorder.
Whatever problems disturb
the community most.
Citizens’ problems and
What determines the
effectiveness of police?
Response times.
Public cooperation.
What view do police take
of service calls?
Deal with them only if there
is no real police work to do.
View them as a vital function
and a great opportunity.
What is police professionalism?
Responding swiftly and effecM
tively to serious crime.
Keeping close to the
What kind of intelligence is
most important?
Crime intelligence (study of
particular crimes or seriesY
Criminal intelligence
(information on the activities
of individual or groups).
What is the essential nature
of police accountability?
Highly centralized; governed
by rules, regulations, and 1
policy directives; accountable
to the law.
Emphasis on local accountability
to community needs.
To provide the necessary 2
rules and policy directives.1
To preach organizational values.
What is the role of the press
liaison department?
To keep the “heat” off operaT
tional officers so they can get
on with the job.
To coordinate an essential
channel of communication
with the community.
How do the police regard
As an important goal.
As one tool among many.
What is the role of
Source: Malcolm, K. (1988, November 8–9). Implementing Community Policing. Washington, DC: Department of
Justice, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Government Printing Office.
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specialized jobs and pay others to cook their food, make and clean their clothes, create their leisure time
activities, and, yes, provide their policing.
The trend for the immediate future of policing, as in the past, will be influenced by social dynamics.
Members of today’s society hire others to do many things our ancestors did for themselves. It follows that
people expect the tax-financed police to provide services that result in crime-free and peaceful neighborhoods. Consequently, when the contemporary Community-Oriented police officer requests today’s working community members to attend neighborhood watch meetings, their response may be different than just
a decade ago. When people today are asked to participate in crime prevention efforts and (as suggested by
some COP programs) to get involved in being the “eyes and ears” of the police, the response is more likely
to be, “What do we pay taxes for?” With many people working long hours and traveling long distances to
work, they may resent the idea of “partnering” with the police to protect their neighborhoods. They are
more inclined to spend their nonworking hours involved in personal “quality-time” activities.
This is not to say that community policing is outmoded. Most crimes are not solved by the police
apprehending the perpetrator during the act. Rather, most crimes are solved because some community
member provides the police with informationTthat leads to the arrest of the violator. Retaining public trust
so that the public provides the information needed
U to bring criminals to justice is still of prime importance.
The philosophy of community policing remains essential in gaining and maintaining public trust.
Additionally, the police continue not toR
have the resources to enforce all the laws. This has resulted
in selective enforcement throughout history.N
Selective enforcement is placing limited resources to work
on selected problems. It is the selection of these problems in which today’s public wants to be involved.
Problem-Oriented Policing is a more current form of selective enforcement that involves local community
members in determining how limited policeR
resources will be deployed.
The recent trend of public demand for more customized services and products affects policing. Ad,
ditionally, “home rule” continues to be an important element in the way our society wants to be governed.
This is why, nationally, we have more than 17,000 separate police departments. There is a growing feeling
among members of our service-minded public
T that they no longer have time to be a “partner” in helping
to deliver the community services. They do, however, want to be involved in specifying what services
they receive and how these services are to beA
customized to their neighborhood needs.
In the past, as part of Community-Oriented
M Policing, the police could rationalize their failure to
cope with some crime problems by arguing that the public should be held accountable as part of the
M somewhat negated the fixing of responsibility and gave
police–community partnership. This approach
law enforcement an excuse for not fulfilling Y
their mission. Today’s trend is for the public to be involved
in defining what problems are affecting neighborhood quality of life and then holding the police accountable for solving these problems. This trend may be called police accountability to community (PAC), or
making a “PAC” with the community to solve
1 specified community/policy problems.
CompStat, the policing approach developed by William Bratton of the New York Police Department
(which won wide acclaim for reducing crime), is a prime example of this trend. This computer-driven
statistical approach provides a means for the2police to assess individual neighborhoods, establish which
problems are to be solved, and:
• Determine specific objectives for eachTpatrol area with public input
placement of personnel and other resources to specific
• Apply innovative tactics, and rapid S
• Employ relentless follow-up and assessment (Maple, 1999, 246)
A 2005 article regarding the Los Angeles Police Department’s use of CompStat (Gascon 2005,
34–43) emphasized the importance of clients’ (referred to as “stakeholders”) involvement in defining
local problems. The police are then held accountable for creating and implementing plans for solving
the problems specified by the clients.
People employed in specialized jobs are demanding customized quality-of-life services for which they
want to hold the providers accountable. Additionally, the threat of terrorism is causing police agencies
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to redeploy some of their limited resources from communityoriented activities to homeland security functions. These trends
are requiring the police to redirect their Client-Oriented Policing approach from a police–public partnership to a more PAC
approach of policing. This approach has the public involved in
establishing which community problems are to be addressed by
the police, but the police are held accountable for solving them.
There is a “PAC” between the community and the police, wherein
the police are held accountable for solving community-defined
problems specific to individual neighborhoods.
The PAC approach, as with other changes, began to materialize several decades earlier. During the later part of the 1980s, the
author, as chief of the Santa Ana Police Department in California,
Compstat Center
was privileged to be linked to other police chiefs throughout the
T School of Government. The major purcountry through a program at the Harvard University Kennedy
pose of this program was to focus the agency’s personnel andUother resources on resolving specific public
safety problems. Additionally, the emphasis was on working more closely with the community and other
governmental organizations to resolve these problems.
Surveys were taken to determine specific problems of concern
to individual neighborhoods. Once
specific problems were identified, responsibility for solving these problems was assigned to specific police
administrators. The author, who had recently worked in the private sector of a large financial instituR and rewarded employees. Following
tion, was aware of how private businesses assigned responsibilities
the private sector example, police administrators could be rewarded for solving specific neighborhood
problems with a yearly bonus of up to 7.5% of their salaries.
Similar approaches were being taken by other police executives involved in the Harvard University
project. During this period, Lee Brown left Houston, Texas, toTtake over the New York Police Department,
where he fostered a more defined means of holding employees accountable for community-oriented
services. William Bratton developed this approach into CompStat
when he became superintendent of
the New York Police Department. Bratton more recently implemented
this concept in the Los Angeles
Police Department. This approach of determining specific neighborhood problems, holding assigned
Mcomputer geographics to monitor progress
police administrators accountable for solving them, and using
has become a common approach to policing in the first decade
Y of the 21st century.
Client-Oriented Service in Courts and Corrections
Most of the discussion of Client-Oriented service has related
1 to law enforcement. Perhaps because law
enforcement is the most visible criminal justice component to the public, it has been involved in the majority of community-oriented changes. Courts and corrections 5
are still functioning under the “just desserts”
philosophy mandated by legislation. Even though they are called
2 “correctional institutions,” rehabilitation
has been considered less important in protecting the public than “warehousing” criminals. Nevertheless, a
1 branches of the criminal justice system.
number of Client-Oriented efforts are being made in these two
During the Client-Oriented development period, a community
prosecution approach emerged.
Prosecutors across the country began to view their roles as more than just the efficient handling of cases.
S to identify the crimes of most concern
This resulted in prosecutors working with citizens and the police
to their communities and those that were having the most impact on local quality of life. Prosecutors then
focused their limited resources toward the prosecution of conditions that were most important to their
communities. With this approach, prosecution efforts partner with other agencies and resources in the
community to provide more domestic tranquility. This can include civil remedies such as restraining orders
to reduce community disturbances, nuisance abatement for gang offenders, trespass statute prosecutions,
and health and safety enforcement (Cole and Kelling 1999).
An example of this approach is a community prosecution program in Buffalo, New York, which
involved fifteen agencies in a “save our streets” task force. The task force included the district attorney’s
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office, the police department, probation services, the U.S. Marshals, and the U.S. Attorney’s Office. The
program, coordinated by the prosecutor, targeted houses suspected of drug use and harboring criminal
activity (Grant 1999). In Washington, D.C., the U.S. District Attorney has partnered with the Metropolitan
Police of the District of Columbia and other private and public agencies to enhance the prosecutorial
function. The prosecutor’s office assigns attorneys to assist the police in criminal investigations, in the
review of arrest warrants, and with the presentation of arrested cases in court. One of the major advantages in this partnership is the increased flow of information among the community, the police, and the
prosecutor’s office (Metropolitan Police District of Columbus 2003).
In recent years, community-based corrections programs have developed. Correctional agencies are
forming mutually beneficial partnerships with the police aimed at enhancing community safety. This is
related to the community policing movement to make better use of community resources in reducing
crime and disorder. Community-based corrections involves a number of noninstitutional approaches,
1. Efforts designed to divert accused offendersTfrom the criminal justice system or jail prior to prosecution,
2. Sentences and programs that impose restrictions on convicted offenders while maintaining them in the
community, and
3. Efforts designed to smooth the transitionR
of inmates from prison to freedom. (McCarthy, McCarthy,
and Leone 2001, 1)
Protection of the public is an important consideration in returning offenders to the community. The
corrections system is sometimes criticized for high recidivism rates, and properly preparing offenders
to remain crime-free is a worthy goal of community-based
corrections. Figure 11.2 shows the escalating
punishments model to controlling the behavior
under the community-based correction
The National Institute of Justice funded a study of 14 police–corrections partnerships in the interest
of assisting criminal justice administrators in T
implementing such approaches. The researchers categorized
the partnerships into five categories:
M and sought to increase the detection of offenders violating
This was the most common type of partnership
probation or patrol conditions by conducting
M joint supervision activities. Unannounced home visits by
probation, parole, and police officers were used as a means of increasing supervision. In a Boston project
called “Boston’s Operation Night Light,” Y
homicides and gang violence were greatly reduced.
1. Enhanced Supervision Partnerships
2. Fugitive-Apprehension Units
In this approach, correction and police personnel jointly sought to locate and apprehend offenders who
had absconded from parole and probation officers.
3. Information-Sharing Partnerships 5
With this approach, procedures were implemented that increased the exchange of information. Shared
database and regular meetings to discuss correctional populations under community supervision within
geographic boundaries were examples of partnerships
in this category.
4. Specialized Enforcement PartnershipsT
Joint efforts with relevant community agencies, specialized enforcement partnerships were formed to
S related to the concerns of individual communities.
enhance collaborative problem-solving efforts
5. Interagency Problem-Solving Partnerships
Corrections and the police jointly identified mutual problems with their local communities, prioritized
strategies, and implemented mutually beneficial approaches. These partnerships provided opportunities
not available to individual agencies. For example, police officers often were unable to keep gang members
from associating with other gang members, whereas a probation or parole officer enforced disassociation as
a condition of release. In these partnerships, Social Equity protections must be maintained. The police, for
example, must resist any temptation to circumvent Fourth Amendment rights, by using the probation or
parole officers to make searches for which the police have no probable cause. (Parent and Snyder 1999)
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Offender reports to
probation officer
periodically, depending
on the offense
sometimes as frequently
as several times a month
or as infrequently as
once a year.
Substance Abuse
Evaluation and referral
services provided by
private outside agencies
and used alone or in
conjunction with either
simple probation or
intensive supervision.
Boot Camp
Rigorous military-style
regimen for younger
offenders, designed to
accelerate punishment
while instilling discipline,
often with an educational
Intensive Supervision
Offender sees probation
officer three to five times
a week. Probation officer
also makes unscheduled
visits to offender’s home
or workplace.
Day Reporting
Clients report to a central
location every day, where
they file a daily schedule
with their supervision
officer showing how each
hour will be spent—at
work, in class, at support
group meetings, etc.
Prisons and Jails
More serious offenders
serve their terms at state
or federal prisons, while
county jails are usually
designed to hold inmates
for shorter periods.
Restitution and Fines
Used alone or in
conjunction with probation
or intensive supervision
and requires regular
payments to crime victims
or to the courts.
Community Service
Used alone or in
conjunction with probation
or intensive supervision
and requires completion
of set number of hours
of work in and for the
Figure 11.2
House Arrest and
Electronic MonitoringN
Used in conjunction with
intensive supervision and
restricts offender to home
except when at work, R
school, or treatment.
Halfway House
Residential settings for
selected inmates as a
supplement to probation
for those completing
prison programs and for
some probation or parole
violators. Usually coupled
with community service
work and/or substance
abuse treatment.
Court and Corrections Community Approaches
The Manhattan Institute issued a report recommending 2
a “radical rethinking” of probation. Prepared
by probation practitioners, it emphasizes community justice
1approaches to probation with recommendations summarized as follows:
1. Put public safety first.
2. Supervise probationers in the neighborhood, not the office.
Source: DiAsclo, W. (1997). Seeking Justice: Crime and Punishment in America. New York: Edna McConnell Clark
Foundation. Used with permission of the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation.
3. Require probation officers to spend more time supervising those offenders who are most at risk.
4. Enforce violations of probation conditions quickly and strongly.
5. Develop partners in the community by:

Creating a system that has meaningful participation from victims and the community,
Developing partnerships with neighborhood groups, schools, business, and faith communities to bring offenders into an environment that has pro-social supports,
• Establishing cooperative partnerships between probation, police, and other criminal justice

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Partnering with human service, treatment, and nonprofit agencies to provide enhanced services to assess, diagnose, treat, and supervise offenders, and
• Creating a comprehensive education campaign to make citizens aware of the crime problems
and the steps being taken to address the problems, and communicating the message that their
involvement is desired.
6. Establish performance-based initiatives using information-based decision making.
7. Require leadership from the top:
• In the final analysis, leadership is the most important ingredient for success.
• It flows from individuals who are risk-takers, willing to enthusiastically embrace a new narrative
for their field and the practice of probation. (Manhattan Institute 1999, 39)
In periods of economic depression, an interest in consolidation often occurs. Recently, there has
been more interest in neighborhood-based integrated police and court centers. These consolidations
can save building and operating costs, provide community meeting places, and promote closer relations
between the police, courts, and the public (Burack,
As with law enforcement administration, courts and correctional administrators have a number of
challenges and barriers in moving traditional organizations toward more Client-Oriented approaches.
Some of these challenges and barriers are discussed
in the next section.
Administrative Challenges Associated
E with the Client-Oriented Approach
Resistance from within agencies and external economic, political, and social factors must often be confronted by criminal justice administrators inRimplementing Client-Oriented approaches. Careful longterm planning efforts involving all levels of the
, organization, as well as elected officials and community
members, are required. Following are some of the issues specific to implementing Client-Oriented
Organizational structures need to become
T more organic and flat. They must make allowances for an
unsteady and ever-changing environment. They must reduce levels of authority to facilitate communicaA
tion and the delegation of the decision making to its most Client-Oriented level.
The assignment of personnel to fixed geographic
and time assignments must be evaluated in light
of historical experience. The philosophy of community
policing, for example, is to bring the police and
the public into a partnership and to promote an ownership of specific neighborhoods.
The long-term assignment of officers toY
a particular shift and time is encouraged. However, it must
be remembered that in the early years of “professionalism” in law enforcement, police officers were
removed from fixed beats and assigned to rotating watches to eliminate corruption. Assigning officers
to specific beats resulted in some becoming1too familiar with the local public. This led to favoritism,
gratuities, and bribery. Of course, during that
5time, the “spoils system” and the selection of unqualified,
untrained, and underpaid personnel contributed to the corruption.
More misconduct was associated with officers
being assigned to morning shifts (e.g., the Rodney
King incident) or special units (e.g., the Rampart
for long periods of time, resulting in undesir1
able subcultures developing. This is where the Eclectic Perspective can sound warning bells that serve
T in place to prevent these types of undesirable situations
as reminders that proper controls must be put
from occurring.
A good rule of thumb in law enforcement is that patrol officers should have at least half of their
time available for proactive activities (Figure 11.3). Answering calls-for-service is certainly an important
part of patrol officers’ duties, and their response time in emergencies can contribute to public faith in
police service. However, community policing requires adequate time for crime prevention and problemsolving activities.
Additionally, time is required to help build community partnerships and public trust. Police administrators should evaluate the workload of their patrol officers to ensure time for proactive activities,
or community policing will not prevail.
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Directed patrol
Figure 11.3
Patrol Time Necessary for Reactive Policing
U has something to do with the number of
Even the geographical location of the police department
officers available. East Coast departments traditionally haveR
more officers in comparison to the population than West Coast departments. The reason goes back to the advent of the automobile. As our country
developed from east to west, the first police departments wereNin the east and foot beats were the common
mode of policing. Officers were hired so that every few blocks
Ehad a “watchman” to cover that area as his
or her beat. These cities continued to hire in this manner as the population grew.
By the time the country had expanded to include what we now call the West, the automobile had
become commonplace. Consequently, as western police departments
were created, they were developed
around the concept of officers patrolling in vehicles and being able to cover larger areas than when on
foot. This is why, at the beginning of the 21st century, the New York Police Department had more than
T Police Department had less than 10,000
40,000 officers for a population of 5 million and the Los Angeles
officers for a population of 3 million.
Returning more officers to foot beats for face-to-face contact with the public is a desirable goal in
M require the doubling of the size of their
community policing. For most West Coast cities to do this would
departments. Conversely, East Coast cities still have more officers
M per capita and are more able to support
community policing with time for proactive police activities and more foot beats. History also should
remind police administrators that the public tends to reduceYfinancial support for policing when crimes
decrease and also when public trust of the police diminishes. It is an unfortunate reality that when the
criminal justice system can be considered successful because of a decrease in crime, the public/political
1 resources, the police are forced to retreat
response is usually a decrease in tax support. Without proper
to a reactive mode, resulting in an increase in crime.
Without the proactive attributes of community policing, one can predict that crime will increase as
2 can be expected to respond by providing
it has in the past. When crime reaches a critical level, the public
tax dollars to hire more officers as they did in the 1980s with1the “war on crime.” The problem with this
knee-jerk response is that the police lose too much ground in fighting crime during these tax-reduction
periods. It takes years to regain this loss once crime goes up and the police are given additional resources.
An Open Systems outlook suggests that administrators mustS
continually educate elected officials and the
public about the need for continual and adequate financial support if policing is to be effective.
Having enough personnel is also vital to implementing Client-Oriented approaches in the courts
and corrections. As previously discussed, the criminal justice system has never been financed to comprehensively confront the crime problem. Many additional prosecutors, defense lawyers, judges, and
probation/parole officers, as well as custodial personnel, are needed to implement many of the aforementioned concepts. For example, the case loads of probation and parole officers must drastically be
reduced if proactive Client-Oriented methods are to be applied. The important factor in being able to
provide Client-Oriented service is being proactive rather than reactive. This requires an adequate number
Administrative Challenges Associated with the Client-Oriented Approach
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of trained personnel. Convincing (and continually reminding) the public and elected officials of this
factor is an important task for all criminal justice administrators.
Crime may rise as a result of community policing. The author, as a consultant and practitioner,
has observed a number of police administrators face political and public criticism after implementing
community policing because of a perceived rise in crime. These phenomena also can cause similar challenges for court and correctional administrators. What really occurs in these situations is a rise in reported
crime. Each year, crime is measured by comparing reported crimes (FBI Uniform Crime Report) with
actual crime (Bureau of Justice Statistics National Crime Victimization Survey). The comparison shows
that less than half of all crime is actually reported (National Crime Victimization Survey, 2005). Many
crimes go unreported because of a distrust of the police. If a Client-Oriented approach successfully gains
the trust of a community that previously has had much distrust for the police, more victims will come
forward and report crime that until then may not have been reported. The result can be a noticeable
increase in reported crime for the initial years following the implementation of community policing.
The Eclectic Perspective administrator would do well to prepare elected officials and the public for the
T a political issue.
likely increase in reported crime before it becomes
Measuring the Effectiveness of Client-Oriented
Service Organizations
Establishing and measuring Client-OrientedN
service goals and objectives is yet another challenge facing
criminal justice administrators. Contemporary concepts are discussed as they apply to evaluating the
overall accomplishment of the organization,E
as well as employees. Traditionally, criminal justice administrators have relied on arrest rates, crime rates,
R clearance rates, and response time to evaluate police
performance. Recent trends focus on holding individual employees (from the line employee to the top
, quality-of-life issues. For example, “fear of crime” (as
executive) accountable for solving neighborhood
introduced by Lee Brown) has been added to the list of community factors to be measured.
Goals and objectives must be established that relate to the needs of the community and the abilities
of the organization. This often is a delicate balance,
that is influenced by economic and political factors.
Management by objectives (MBO) is anA
approach credited to Peter Drucker, the well-known management consultant of the 1950–1970s. His approach fits well in measuring Client-Oriented goals and
objectives. Drucker observed that people work hardest when they have a clear objective in mind and can
Mand the accomplishment of that objective. He proposed
see a direct relationship between their efforts
MBO as a means of obtaining higher work standards and greater productivity while applying stricter
accountability (Drucker 1954). Determining community needs and developing them into quantifiable
and time-bound objectives, then holding employees accountable for achieving these objectives, is an
important part of measuring the effectiveness
1 of Client-Oriented efforts.
Using an Open Systems approach to establishing standards and performance indicators is important
5 also in making midcourse adjustments when necessary.
not only in measuring annual objectives but
Figure 11.4 provides a graphic picture of this2
approach. In establishing realistic objectives, knowledge of
current inputs, processing, and outputs is necessary.
1 in implementing the previously discussed Matrix
The author, as a new police chief involved
Community-Oriented Policing (MiCOP), initiated
a program to establish new goals and objectives (see
the Relevant Publication at the end of this chapter for more details). Through a number of personnel and
community meetings, the mission statementSwas established. In an effort to ensure that all department
members knew and understood the department mission, the following actions were taken: (1) the mission
statement was incorporated in recruit, roll-call, and ongoing training programs; (2) it was included in
all promotional examinations; (3) it became a part of the awards and commendations program; and (4)
it became the focus of all personnel evaluation reports (Roberg and Kuykendall 1993).
As part of setting goals and objectives, a survey was developed to determine community and employee opinions. Input from public meetings and interviews with those elected by the community as their
representatives were also used. All 1,000 members of the department were interviewed in small groups
by the executive officers. Every employee also was asked to fill out a questionnaire that asked, among
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Management control: Relationship of concepts
• Community
• Other
• Patrol
• Investigation
• Arrests
• Style
• Discretion
Crime rate
• Fear
• Attitudes
Standards and performance indicators
Figure 11.4
Open Systems Management Control for Evaluating COP
other things, what changes they would like to see implemented
N in the department and which practices
they would like to see remain in place.
Ethat were distributed to the employees in
Responses to the survey produced more than 200 items
a second questionnaire asking them to rate each item in order
R of importance. From this process, the 20
most critical issues were selected. Managers were then assigned to task forces with groups of employees
, of these recommendations then became
to develop ways to resolve these issues. The implementation
Source: Roberg, R.R., Kuykendall, J., & Novak, K. (2002). Police Management. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing
Company. Printed with permission of the publisher.
objectives for which all administrators and their employees were held accountable.
Next, the five geographic divisions of the city were surveyed to determine the major policing conT specific crimes, gangs, drugs, vagrants,
cerns of individual neighborhoods. Major concerns involving
prostitution, and traffic were defined by individual neighborhoods,
A and resolving them became the focus
of yearly objectives set by all employees, from line personnel to the top executives.
M of the objective. These evaluation factors
Factors were established to measure the accomplishment

Specific crimes of concern to individual neighborhoods
Traffic accidents relating to specific neighborhoods
Response time for life-threatening incidents, and for lesser incidents as they were of concern to
specific neighborhoods
Community satisfaction as established by yearly surveys
Commendations and sustained personnel complaints
2 of all employees
Employee satisfaction as established by yearly surveys
1 is that success is not just based on the
Important to the Client-Oriented service evaluation process
quantity of work (e.g., number of arrests, traffic citations, and
T crime) but rather must include qualitative
measures that are more difficult to evaluate. Additionally, it is important that once the “baseline” survey
S (or lack of progress) in achieving objechas been taken, it is repeated periodically to measure progress
tives. The National Office of Community Oriented Policing Services provides a suggested community
survey format that may be tailored to the needs of individual agencies (Office of Community Oriented
Policing Services 2006).
Mail-in surveys are a low-cost method of surveying (especially if combined with regular mailings,
such as utility bills), but low response rates make them less desirable in establishing overall community
opinion. Interviews are more reliable but are often cost-prohibitive. The author found college student
volunteers from a local university very helpful. In a mostly Spanish-speaking part of town, the author
gained the help of members of a state Hispanic police officers association and their spouses in conducting
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the interviews. A side benefit of this arrangement was that the off-duty officers, who conducted the
interviews in street clothes, said they were able to gain insight into these communities in a way they never
could while in uniform.
In the city where the author was police chief, he was able to reward managers with a yearly bonus
for achieving objectives. Figure 11.5 shows a portion of a personnel evaluation form currently being used
by the city of Rock Island, Illinois, where yearly community quality-of-life objectives are set between
employees and their supervisors. Police officers and other employees then can receive up to a 3% increase
(above cost-of-living increases) in salary for achieving these objectives. This type of evaluation and reward
process, common in the business world for years, is now becoming more prevalent as part of the police
accountability to the community (PAC) approach.
The Police Executive Research Forum suggests using 21 statistical indicators based on 7 performance
dimensions to measure the overall effectiveness of police agencies (Table 11.3). These measurement
Goals and Objectives from the Last
R Appraisal
Refer to the last appraisal for this employee. List each goal that had been set and
N or exceeded that goal. Explain any
indicate whether you achieved, failed to reach,
situations or conditions that may have affected attainment. Disregard if this is the
first appraisal for this employee.
Goal 1:
Goal 2:
Goal 3:
Goal 4:
Goal 5:
Goal 6:
Goal 7:
Goal 8:
No action
Step increase
Current score:
Pay for performance
Employee’s Current Annual Pay
Current Maximum Pay for Employees
Percent increase
Figure 11.5
Example COP Employee Evaluation
Source: Permission to reprint from the Rock Island Police Department, Illinois.
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Statistical Measures of Police Organizational Performance
Performance Dimensions
Statistical Indicators
Reduce criminal victimization
Reported crime rates
Victimization rates
Call offenders to account
Clearance rates
Conviction rates
Reduce fear and enhance personal security
Reported changes in levels of fear
Reported changes in self-defense measures
Guarantee safety in public spaces
Traffic fatalities, injuries, and damage
Increased utilization of parks and public spaces
T property values
Use financial resources fairly, efficiently,
and effectively
per citizen
Deployment efficiency/fairness
R efficiency
Budget compliance
Overtime expenditures
Use force and authority fairly, efficiently,
and effectively
R complaints
Settlements in liability suits
, shootings
Satisfy customer demands/achieve legitimacy
with those policed
Satisfaction with police services
Response times
T perceptions of fairness
Source: Adapted from Moore, M., Thacher, D., Dodge, A., & Moore T. (2002). Recognizing Value in Policing:
The Challenge of Measuring Police Performance. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.
factors reflect a comprehensive understanding of the goals and objectives required of a Client-Oriented
service criminal justice agency.
Most of the discussion of measurement of Client-Oriented service has related to law enforcement.
5 corrections. The National Sourcebook of
Here the focus is on evaluating such service in the courts and
Criminal Justice Statistics (2005) provides some useful information
in evaluating the effectiveness of
prosecutors and the courts. Information such as how many cases of particular types are prosecuted,
1 trial outcome, the number of judges who
how many are plea-bargained, how many go to trial and the
are sanctioned or recalled, and conviction rates of prosecutors
T are just a few facts that are available in
national, as well as state and local, government publications. Tying these facts to Client-Oriented goals
and objectives is necessary for the proper measurement of results.
The Client-Oriented service approach in corrections focuses on community safety. Communitybased corrections involves programs designed to provide various forms of education and vocational,
psychological, and social assistance to enable offenders to be integrated back into the community and
remain crime-free. Yet approximately 60 to 65% of those granted probation or parole commit new
crimes or have their release revoked within one to two years (Maguire and Pastone 2000). Measurement
of recidivism rates is just one way of measuring the effectiveness of Client-Oriented approaches. As with
law enforcement, measuring public fear of crime and domestic tranquility is yet another.
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Current Status of Client-Oriented Service
to Contemporary Criminal Justice Agencies
The movement of the public away from having time to participate in neighborhood watch and crime
prevention programs, but still demanding police accountability to the community (PAC) for services
tailored to their neighborhoods, continues. As a result, Targeting Hot Spots has become a useful tool
in providing Client-Oriented service. Targeting Hot Spots is an outgrowth of CompStat and is a process
whereby police administrators can deploying their limited resources to locations and at times required
to solve local neighbor problems. Resources can then be focused through a number of tactical avenues
as shown in Table 11.4 (Bruce 2008).
At the 2009 Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) Annual Meeting, Dr. George L. Kelling (see
the “broken window” theory in this chapter) proclaimed: “Don’t let budget cuts damage your commitment to community policing” (Subject to Debate 2009, 1). He stated that he feared that as we proceed
through this economic crisis, law enforcement will return to “basic policing—meaning returning officers
to cars and having them respond quickly toTcalls for service.” He said, “That’s the trap that I think is
facing policing at the present time. The irony is that tough economic times are exactly when community
policing is needed most, because the recession is going to hit poor communities the worst. They’re goR need to be on the streets with citizens, keeping good
ing to be hit very hard. This is when police really
relations with the community” (1).
Tactical Avenues in Connection with Targeting Hot Spots
Location: Limited
locations for next
offense; small target
Offender: Strong
offender description
or name; or good
physical evidence
Target: Limited number
of potential targets; targets
easy to identify and reach
None: Broad geography;
no suspect; large number
of available targets
Rapid response
Silent alarms
Hidden cameras
Channeling Y
Tactical Avenue
Target Hardening
Security surveys
Security guards or
Directed patrols
Phantom cars
Visible camera
General community
Traditional evidenceand media information
based investigation
2 patrol
General community
and media information
Controlled buys
Planned response
Profile interview
Property identification
Bulletins to potential
Market disruption
Warning signs
Community organization
General community and
media information
Saturation patrols
Source: Bruce, C. 2008. “Closing the Gap Between Analysis and Response.” The Police Chief (September): 30–34.
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In a recent law enforcement article titled “Community Policing and CompStat: Merged, or Mutually Exclusive,” Professor Kenneth Peak of the University of
Nevada provides commentary of how some law enforcement administrators are
signaling “an ill advised move away from Client-Oriented service. ‘We’re not doing community policing now, we’re doing CompStat,’ said a Western police chief
recently.” “We’re going to do CompStat,” announced a newly elected Midwestern
sheriff. “How many other chiefs and sheriffs in the United States now say—or at
least think—the same way?” asks Peck. Peck goes on to remind us of how CompStat
is the “feedback” tool so important to Problem-Oriented and Community-Oriented
policing (Peak 2009). When thinking about CompStat in the Open Systems model
context, it has become the feedback component that can keep track of today’s
Client-Oriented service outcomes on a timely basis.
Another recent law enforcement article titled “Moments of Truth in Policing”
(Duggan 2010) spotlights the importance of moments of truth in the current
economic climate. The article states,
U moments of truth
By concentrating their efforts on recognizing and encouraging
encounters by their employees, police chiefs may counteract
R some of the damaging operational and quality-of-life impacts brought on by the ailing economy.
In order to insulate fundamental front-line police services, such as patrols and
investigations, from sweeping budgetary reductions, many
Edepartments have been forced to eliminate or severely decrease community outreach and crime prevention initiatives. Programs developed
and honed over the past 20 years are now at risk of elimination because of budget constraints. By
, in their agencies, police leaders can
embracing and promoting the moments of truth philosophy
bolster a community’s support and willingness to participate in preventing crime. (64–65)
George Kelling
James Q. Wilson (cocreator along with George L. Kelling
T of the broken window theory discussed in
this chapter) recently commented on the continuing decrease in crime and contemporary administrators
A of William Bratton as top police adminwho have had some success. Wilson commented on the success
istrator in New York and Los Angeles. Wilson stated, “WhatM
he really did, his fundamental contribution,
was to persuade the police that your job is not to make arrests. Your job is to prevent crime. You will not
be rewarded for having more arrests, but for bringing downMcrime. That was the fundamental change”
(Jenkins 2011, 1).
Using CompStat to Target Hot Spots, focusing on Moments of Truth to counter current budget
reductions, and rewarding the police for preventing crime rather than arrests are all important current
criminal justice administration key concepts.
Key Concepts and Terms
Evolutionary Components of Client-Oriented Service in1Law Enforcement
• Community relations and press programs
• Team policing
• Neighborhood watch

• Return to the Peel Principles
• Kansas City study
• Broken windows theory
• Fear of crime
• Problem-Oriented Policing (POP)
Evolutionary Components of Client-Oriented Service in Law Enforcement
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Eclectic Perspective
Social Equity
Open Systems
Employee Relations
A Organization Functions
Figure 11.6
Filing Cabinet of the Five Contextual Themes
• Community policing
• Combining COP and POP
(PAC) policing


• CompStat


Client-Oriented Service in the Courts and Corrections

41344_CH11_FINAL.indd 266
Community prosecution approach
Community-based corrections
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Administrative Challenges Associated with the Client-Oriented Service Approach

Crime may rise as a result of community policing
Measuring the Effectiveness of Client-Oriented Service Organizations

Management by objectives (MBO)
21 statistical indicators based on 7 performance dimensions
Chapter Activity
Go to the Internet and locate the Problem-Oriented Policing (POP) website. Think of a POP problem
and investigate what SARA approaches to this problem have been tried by various agencies. What is the
impact of CompStat on policing today?
Review Questions
1. How do the concepts of Peters and Waterman and Jan Carlzon apply today?
2. Describe the evolutionary stages that the Client-OrientedUservice concepts have gone through to bring
us to what is considered the best approach today. Do you
R think that these concepts will continue to
be considered the best in the future?
3. What are some of the hazards of implementing Client-Oriented service? As an administrator, how
would you overcome them?
4. Discuss some of the Client-Oriented service approaches
Rof court and correction administration.
5. Imagine that you are a criminal justice administrator and have been assigned to develop and imple, a community-based corrections program).
ment a criminal justice entity of your choice (for example,
Which Client-Oriented service concepts would you consider in fulfilling this assignment?
Ardrey, R. L. 1966. Territorial Imperative: A Personal Inquiry
into the Animal Origins of Property and Nations. New York:
Bruce, C. 2008. “Closing the Gap Between Analysis and
Response.” The Police Chief (September): 30–34.
Burack, J. 2010. “Milliken, Colorado’s Police-Court-Community Building Advances Today’s Style of Policing.” Subject to
Debate: A Newsletter of the Police Executive Research Forum
(June): 3–6.
Cole, C., and G. Kelling. 1999. “Prevention Through Community Prosecution.” The Public Interest (Fall): 124–137.
Cronkhite, C. 1988. “Santa Ana’s Reorganization—Matrix
Community Oriented Policing.” The Journal of California
Law Enforcement (April): 17–21.
Davis, E. M. 1978. Staff One: A Perspective of Effective Police
Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Drucker, P. 1954. The Practice of Management. New York:
Duggan, S. 2010. “Moments of Truth in Policing.” The Police
Chief (June): 64–65.
Eck, J. E., and W. Spelman. 1987. Problem Solving: ProblemOriented Policing in Newport News. Washington, DC: Police
Executive Research Forum.
Gascon, G. 2005. “CompStat Plus.” Police Chief (May): 24–26.
Goldstein, H. 1979. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York:
Grant, H. 1999. “Buffalo Weed and Seed Initiative.” In Promising
M to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence. Washington, DC:
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
H. W. 2011. “The Man Who Defined Deviancy Up.”
Wall Street Journal (March 12): 1.
G., T. D. Dieckman, and C. E. Brown. 1974. The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary Report.
Washington, DC: The Police Foundation.
Maguire, K., and A. Pastone. 2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Albany: The Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center, State University
of New York at Albany.
Manhattan Institute. 1999. “Broken Windows Probations: The
Next Step in Fighting Crime.” Civic Report 7 (August):
Maple, J. 1999. The Crime Fighter. New York: Doubleday.
McCarthy, B., B. McCarthy Jr., and M. Leone. 2001. CommunityBased Corrections. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Metropolitan Police District of Columbus. 2003. “Community
Prosecution.” Retrieved March 2006 from www.justice.gov/
National Crime Victimization Survey. 2005. Washington, DC:
Department of Justice.
The National Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. 2005.
Washington, DC: Department of Justice.
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. 2001. Problem Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder
41344_CH11_FINAL.indd 267
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© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR RESALE OR DISTRIBUTION
Through Problem-Solving Partnerships. Washington, DC:
Department of Justice.
———. 2006. Conducting Community Surveys. Washington,
DC: Department of Justice.
Ottmeier, T. N., and L. P. Brown. 1988. “Role Expectations and
the Concept of Neighborhood-Oriented Police.” In Development of Neighborhood Oriented Policing, by T. N. Ottmeier
and L P. Brown, pp. 5–8. Arlington, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police.
Parent, D., and B. Snyder. 1999. Police-Corrections Partnerships:
Issues and Practices. Washington, DC: National Institute of
Peak, K. 2009. “Community Policing and CompStat: Merged, or
Mutually Exclusive.” The Police Chief (December): 72–84.
Relevant Publication
Peters, T. 1989. Excellence in the Public Sector. Boston: Enterprise
Media, Inc. [videotape].
Reith, C. 1948. A Short History of the British Police. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Roberg, R. R., and J. Kuykendall. 1993. Police & Society. Belmont,
CA: Wadsworth.
Skogan, W. 1996. Disorder and Decline. Berkeley: University of
California Press.
Subject to Debate: A Newsletter of the Police Executive Research Forum. 2009. “George L. Kelling: Don’t Let Budget Cuts Damage Your Commitment to Community Policing” (June): 1.
Toffler, A. 1980. The Third Wave. New York: Bantam Books.
Wilson, J., and G. Kelling. 1982. “The Police and Neighborhood
Safety.” Atlantic Monthly (March): 32–35.
Matrix Community-Oriented Policing was discussed in this chapter as an element in the evolution of
community policing. This article about the Santa Ana Police Department’s development of MiCOP
R to Community-Oriented Policing (Cronkhite 1988).
provides one example of the many approaches
The purpose of this article is to outline the concepts behind the recent reorganization of the Santa Ana
A about with the hiring of a new police chief and in an
Police Department—a reorganization that came
effort to energize the Community-Oriented M
Policing Program.
The Santa Ana Police Department has nearly 600 employees and serves a population of approximately
250,000 (daytime population over 400,000).M
Santa Ana is the county seat of Orange County, one of the
fastest growing areas of Southern California. The
Y city’s multi-ethnic population includes a broad spectrum
of socio-economical residential areas plus major retail and manufacturing business communities.
The reorganization involved the following five steps:
Institutionalizing the department Mission statement.
5 for the Mission.
Establishing measurements of accountability
Assessing the needs of the community. 2
Assessing the needs of the employees.
1 4.
Reorganizing to meet the needs of 1 through
Institutionalizing the Department MissionSStatement
The Mission was developed as a statement through a number of management meetings and retreats. It
documents the department’s values and provides focus for agency efforts and application of resources.
The Mission of the department is as follows:
“. . . to ensure the safety and security of all of the people of our city by providing responsive and professional police service with compassion and concern. Our Mission is accomplished within the moral
and legal standards of our community through a partnership of the community and members of the
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Next, an effort was made to ensure that all employees knew and understood the Mission. This was
accomplished by the following:

Incorporating it into the recruit, roll call, and ongoing training processes.
Including it in promotion examinations.
Making it a part of the awards and commendation system.
Focusing on it in all personnel evaluation reports.
To further the indoctrination of the Mission, the chief of police and managers randomly asked
employees at inspections, roll calls, and individual meetings their interpretation of the meaning of the
Mission. All employees were expected to know and to be able to intelligently discuss the Mission.
A slogan contest was held for all employees with a prize of $200 for the slogan that best exemplified
the Mission. The winning slogan was “Partners with the Community” which will be displayed on all patrol
cars, in police community newsletters, and on public relations billboards throughout the city.
Establishing Measurements of Accountability for the Mission
Measurements had to be agreed upon so that all employees,U
from the officer in the radio car to the chief
of police, could be held accountable. Through a series of meetings, the managers agreed upon the folR
lowing measures after discussion with employees:

N watch.
Part one crime—recorded monthly by team, area, and
Traffic accidents—recorded monthly by team, area, E
and watch.
Response time for life threatening incidents—recorded monthly by team, area, and watch.
R by area and by monthly accounts of
Community satisfaction—established in a yearly survey
commendations and sustained personnel complaints.
Employee satisfaction—established in a yearly survey of all employees. This is a measure for
which all supervisors and above are held accountable.
Fiscal year goals were established for each of these measures. These goals are reflected in all personnel
evaluation reports. The managers (lieutenants, nonsworn mid-managers
and above) have a yearly bonus,
which is up to 71⁄2 percent of their salary. The five measures
into the rating for their
bonus. The managers share in this bonus in much the same way that a private corporation gives bonuses
when their company makes a profit.
The success measure for all employees is not the quantity Y
of work (number of arrests, and citations) but
rather the positive impact they have on these five factors. This approach encourages working closely with
each other and with other city agencies and is intended to strengthen external and internal partnerships.
The department was viewed as a corporation with the city council/city
manager being the board of directors and the community members as the shareholders. A survey
was developed (along with input
from public meetings and interviews with individual council people) to determine the direction that
the community wanted the department to take. The result1
of the surveys showed that the community
wanted special emphasis on the following:
1. Gang activity
Assessing Community Needs
Street drug activity
Vagrancy violations
Traffic accidents
“Attack Teams” were developed under the leadership of the area commanders (lieutenants). The focus of
these Attack Teams is on the five areas of concern to the community. Because of a tight budget, the resources
used to finance the Attack Teams come from salary savings and narcotic asset forfeiture money.
“Santa Ana’s Reorganization—Matrix Community-Oriented Policing” by Clyde Cronkhite
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Each area commander is given a budget from these funds to “hire” off-duty officers to work outside
their regular job hours and to concentrate on positively impacting these five areas. The emphasis is on
long-range problem solving.
Assessing the Needs of the Employees
Employees, of course, are the most valuable resource and their job satisfaction is of prime importance.
Consequently, all employees were interviewed: managers individually, and supervisors and below in
groups of 15. Also, every member of the department was asked to fill out a questionnaire which asked
the following three questions:
1. What would you change about the department?
2. What do you not want changed?
3. What should we be doing that we’re not doing now?
The response to these questions produced over 200 items that were then distributed back to the
T them to rate each item. Through this process, the 20 most
employees in a second questionnaire that asked
important items emerged. These top 20 included
U a need for more parking space for personal vehicles, more
training, and more proactive police work. Managers were assigned to oversee task forces of department
employees who were given the opportunity R
to resolve each of these 20 issues. Their recommendations
were published and subsequently implemented.
On July 1, 1988, the Santa Ana Police Department
R was reorganized. The reorganization focused on the
following aspects: achieving the Mission, long-term problem solving, and satisfying the needs of the com, was to involve more management and sworn personnel
munity and department employees. A key factor
in the Community-Oriented Policing Program for which the Santa Ana Police Department had gained
national recognition. Additionally, the five areas of primary concern to the community as established by
the community survey were given special emphasis.
A focus of the reorganization was to resolve
A specific public safety problems and to work more closely
with the community and other governmental organizations to resolve these problems. Under the new
organization structure, all four captains and seven of the lieutenants share primary responsibility for the
M of one captain and four lieutenants, which had been
Community-Oriented Policing Program instead
the case under the prior organization.
The reorganization—called Matrix Community-Oriented Policing (MiCOP)—facilitates the accomplishment of the Mission by arranging the department into specialized forces which are capable of
attacking problems from different perspectives
1 (Figure 1). All forces share the responsibility for overall
success of the Mission but achieve this success through various approaches. MiCOP is a three-dimensional
5 functions interact to share responsibilities in resolving
organizational structure approach in which many
public safety problems.
First, it is based on the concept that one-dimensional structures are destined to fall; three-dimen1 stability. Second, problems are best solved by attacking
sional, multi-strength entities, however, provide
them from many overlapping approaches. T
In this structure, each employee is held responsible for achieving the Mission in a particular
geographical area, for a specified period ofS
time. These responsibilities, however, overlap, providing
each area of the city with several forces of the department working to provide service in a matrix
effort approach.
Divisional Responsibility
Under MiCOP, the divisional commanders (captains) are responsible for their respective divisions on a
24-hour basis. They are accountable for achieving the Mission and, along with the chief of police, coordinate with the Community-Oriented Policing president and area chairpersons.
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Area commanders
Community Community
Traffic enforcement
Crime prevention
Watch I (AM)
COP Coordination
• Chief of Police and Division
Commanders coordinate with
COP president and area
• Watch commanders coordinate
with COP area boards.
• Area commanders coordinate
with COP area boards.
Support Functions
• Crime prevention specialists
assigned by area.
• Traffic enforcement assigned by
• Property crimes assigned by
Watch III (PM) Sergeant
Matrix Community-Oriented Policing Organization Structure (Santa Ana,P.D. Reorganization).
Watch II (PM)
A policing on a shift-by-shift basis. They
The watch commanders (lieutenants) are responsible for citywide
are responsible for achieving the Mission with special priority
Mon responding to calls for services, shortterm problem solving and coordinating with the Community-Oriented Policing citywide Executive Board.
Mimmediate and short-term nature.
Their goals are rapid response and resolution of problems of
Each watch sergeant is responsible for supervising the accomplishment
of the Mission in one of the
Watch Responsibility
four areas of the city during their watch. Each area has two team territories. Patrol officers are assigned
to team territories in which they are responsible for achieving the Mission.
Team officers also attend neighborhood meetings in their
1 territories that are arranged by the area
personnel. It is their responsibility to deal with issues on an incident-by-incident basis with focus on
rapid response and immediate incident resolution.
Each area commander (lieutenant) is responsible for a fourth1of the city designated as areas A through D.
The area commanders are responsible for these areas on a 24-hour
T basis. They are accountable for achieving the Mission with special emphasis on long-term problem solving. They coordinate the CommunityS program and the Attack Teams.
Oriented Police programs, the community centers, the footbeat
Area Responsibility
At the heart of the Community-Oriented Policing program is the community center. One center is
located in each of the four areas and is staffed by a sergeant and a number of police service officers who
coordinate local neighborhood policing.
Each footbeat is made up of approximately six officers. Additional officers normally assigned to a
watch and team will rotate into each area commander’s footbeat program for a six-month period. By
doing so, these officers gain experience in long-range proactive problem solving and are directly involved
in the community center efforts. They bring to the area footbeat program a fresh understanding of the
“Santa Ana’s Reorganization—Matrix Community-Oriented Policing” by Clyde Cronkhite
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short-range problems in their team territories and take back to their watch a broader understanding of
neighborhood issues. This rotation strengthens the matrix approach.
The area commanders have at their disposal funds from salary savings and narcotic asset forfeiture
to finance the Attack Teams. The Attack Teams place special focus on the gang problems, street drug
problems, prostitution, vagrancy violations, and traffic accidents and use as their resources the “hiring”
of off-duty officers.
The efforts of the Attack Teams are not just to make arrests but to develop and implement longterm solutions to these five areas of community concern. They coordinate with other city departments
to improve neighborhoods and traffic flow, educate the public, remove graffiti, initiate civil court actions
that curtail conditions that cause crime, and develop other innovative ways to provide safe and secure
Related Responsibilities
Investigative, traffic, and crime prevention activities are likewise divided into specific area and time frame
T these responsibilities are held accountable for achieving
responsibilities. Those who manage and supervise
the Mission accordingly. Additionally, theseU
managers and supervisors coordinate with the appropriate
components of the Community-Oriented Policing structure in carrying out their responsibilities.
An essential ingredient of the reorganization is the strong participation of neighborhood and business
E watch meetings are still effective in some areas. In other
groups within the community. Neighborhood
areas, special crime issue meetings (grid meetings)
R are more successful, especially in minority communities inhabited by new arrivals to the city. Tailor-made approaches for individual neighborhoods are
Another important component of the reorganization is putting the majority of the department (not
just a few community relations employees) in direct contact with, and making them directly responsible
to, the community they serve.
The basic idea is to focus the resources of
Athe department toward de…
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