Post a message that explains and discusses how an organization can use successful project management strategies to ensure its project remains on schedule and under budget.  What examples of project management (places where there was an intentional and identified plan, resources, and list of tasks to accomplish a specific task) can be found in the Bible?  
– Baltzan, P. (2017). Business Driven Technology (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
(ISBN 978-1-259-56732-2)]
Read: Baltzan, Chapters 18 and 19CHAPTER
NINETEEN
MANAGING
ORGANIZATIONAL
PROJECTS
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved
1
LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Explain project management and the primary
reasons project fail
2. Identify the primary project planning diagrams
3. Identify the three different types of
outsourcing along with their benefits and
challenges
2
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS

Primary reasons for project failure





Unclear or missing business requirements
Skipping SDLC phases
Failure to manage project scope
❖ Scope creep
❖ Feature creep
Failure to manage project plan
Changing technology
3
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
4
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
5
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
6
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS

The later in the SDLC an error is found the more
expensive it is to fix!
7
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
▪ Analysts predict investment in MIS projects
worldwide is over $1 trillion
▪ 70 percent will be lost due to failed projects
▪ The consequences of failed projects include





Damaged brand
Lost goodwill
Dissolution of partnerships
Lost investment opportunities
Low morale
8
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
▪ The Project Management Institute (PMI) develops
procedures and concepts necessary to support the
profession of project management (www.pmi.org)
and has three areas of focus
1. The distinguishing characteristics of a practicing
professional (ethics)
2. The content and structure of the profession’s body of
knowledge (standards)
3. Recognition of professional attainment (accreditation)
9
THE TRIPLE CONSTRAINT
▪ Benjamin Franklin’s timeless advice – by failing to
prepare, you prepare to fail – applies to software
development projects
▪ The Hackett Group analyzed 2,000 companies and
discovered
• Three in 10 major IT projects fail
• 21 percent of the companies state that they cannot
adjust rapidly to market changes
• One in four validates a business case for IT projects
after completion
10
THE TRIPLE CONSTRAINT
Project Management Interdependent Variables
11
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS

Project – Temporary activities undertaken to
create a unique product or service

Project management – The application of
knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to
project activities to meet project requirements

Project manager – An individual who is an
expert in project planning and management,
defines and develops the project plan, and
tracks the plan to ensure the project is
completed on time and on budget
12
USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT TO
DELIVER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS

Project deliverable – Any measurable,
tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that
is produced to complete a project or part of a
project

Project milestone – Represents key dates
when a certain group of activities must be
performed

Project management office (PMO) – An
internal department that oversees all
organizational projects
13
PROJECT PARTICIPANTS
▪ Project stakeholder – Individuals and
organizations actively involved in the project or
whose interests might be affected as a result of
project execution or project completion
▪ Executive sponsor – The person or group who
provides the financial resources for the project
14
PRIMARY PROJECT PLANNING
DIAGRAMS

SMART criteria are
useful reminders on
how to ensure that
the project has
created
understandable and
measurable
objectives
15
PRIMARY PROJECT PLANNING
DIAGRAMS

Project plan – A formal, approved document
that manages and controls project execution

A well-defined project plan should be

Easy to understand and read

Communicated to all key participants

Appropriate to the project’s size, complexity, and
criticality

Prepared by the team, rather than by the individual
project manager
16
PRIMARY PROJECT PLANNING
DIAGRAMS

Two primary diagrams used in project
planning include PERT and Gantt charts

PERT chart
❖ Dependency
❖ Critical path

Gantt chart
17
PRIMARY PROJECT PLANNING
DIAGRAMS
PERT Chart EXPERT – PERT Chart Example
18
PRIMARY PROJECT PLANNING
DIAGRAMS
MS Project – Gantt Chart Example
19
OUTSOURCING PROJECTS
▪ In-sourcing (in-housedevelopment) –Uses the
professional expertise within an
organization to develop and maintain
its information technology systems
▪ Outsourcing – An arrangement by
which one organization provides a
service or services for another
organization that chooses not to
perform them in-house
20
OUTSOURCING PROJECTS
▪ Factors driving outsourcing growth include




Core competencies
Financial savings
Rapid growth
The Internet and globalization
21
OUTSOURCING PROJECTS
▪ Onshore outsourcing
▪ Nearshore outsourcing
▪ Offshore outsourcing
22
OUTSOURCING PROJECTS
▪ Big selling point for offshore outsourcing
“inexpensive good work”
23
OUTSOURCING BENEFITS
▪ Outsourcing benefits include
• Increased quality and efficiency of business processes
• Reduced operating expenses for head count and
exposure to risk for large capital investments
• Access to outsourcing service provider’s expertise,
economies of scale, best practices, and advanced
technologies
• Increased flexibility for faster response to market changes
and less time to market for new products or services
24
OUTSOURCING CHALLENGES

Outsourcing challenges include

Length of contract
1. Difficulties in getting out of a contract
2. Problems in foreseeing future needs
3. Problems in reforming an internal IT department
after the contract is finished

Threat to competitive advantage

Loss of confidentiality
25
LEARNING OUTCOME REVIEW
▪ Now that you have finished the chapter
please review the learning outcomes in
your text
26
CHAPTER
EIGHTEEN
METHODOLOGIES
FOR SUPPORTING
AGILE
ORGANIZATIONS
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved
1
LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Summarize the different software
development methodologies
2. Explain why a company would implement
a service-oriented architecture
2
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
METHODOLOGIES

There are a number of different
software development
methodologies including






Waterfall
Agile
Rapid application development
(RAD)
Extreme programming
Rational unified process (RUP)
Scrum
3
WATERFALL METHODOLOGY

Waterfall
methodology – A
sequence of
phases in which
the output of each
phase becomes
the input for the
next
4
AGILE METHODOLOGY

Iterative development –
Consists of a series of tiny
projects

Agile methodology – Aims for
customer satisfaction through
early and continuous delivery of
useful software components
developed by an iterative
process using the bare
minimum requirements
5
RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
METHODOLOGY (RAD)

Rapid application development methodology–
Emphasizes extensive user involvement in the
rapid and evolutionary construction of working
prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems
development process

Prototype – A smaller-scale representation or
working model of the users’ requirements or a
proposed design for an information system

The prototype is an essential part of the analysis
phase when using a RAD methodology
6
EXTREME PROGRAMMING
METHODOLOGY
▪ Extreme programming (XP) methodology – Breaks a
project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on
to the next phase until the first phase is complete
7
RATIONAL UNIFIED PROCESS (RUP)
METHODOLOGY
▪ Rational Unified Process (RUP) – Provides a
framework for breaking down the development of
software into four gates
• Gate One: Inception
• Gate Two: Elaboration
• Gate Three: Construction
• Gate Four: Transition
8
SCRUM METHODOLOGY
▪ SCRUM – Uses small teams to produce small
pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or
30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
▪ Under this methodology, each day ends or
begins with a stand-up meeting to monitor and
control the development effort
9
DEVELOPING A SERVICE-ORIENTED
ARCHITECTURE
• Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a business-driven
enterprise architecture that supports integrating a business
as linked, repeatable activities, tasks, or services.
10
LEARNING OUTCOME REVIEW
▪ Now that you have finished the chapter
please review the learning outcomes in
your text
11

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