. Obtain I anode-V anode characteristics. Make your own choice of the concrete values based on your knowledge of semiconductor devices. What is the threshold voltage (VT)?
 2. Plot conduction and valence band profile along the middle of the gate when the  device is a) off, and b) on. Overlap the plot of conduction and valence band profile with the plot of electron density.
 3. Make such changes in a device architecture that you will achieve an increase in the drain current at the overdrive of 1.0 V (Vanode-VT=1.0 V) about 50% or more. The changes in the device architecture have to be justified using physical arguments in the report and be physically achievable. Use your knowledge from the module Semiconductor Technology if needed.# TPCS version: 6
# key positions
key contours 1 at 3
key contours 2 at 1
key contours 3 at 6
key electrical at 6
key vectors at 6
key overlay at 2
key regions at 4
# various properties
log label 0
select 1
# plot flags, special
show mesh off
show edges on
show materials on
show contours off
show light off
show vectors off
show junctions on
show electrodes on
show threed off
draw 1
# annotation, titles
title main auto
title sub auto
# annotation, footers
footer right none
footer left none
# annotation, show
show xaxis on
show yaxis on
show grid off
show label xaxis on
show label yaxis on
# annotation, axes
range xaxis auto
range yaxis auto
label xaxis “Microns”
label yaxis “Microns”
# zoom
zoom from 0, 0 scale 1, 1
# user labels
# overlay level names
label overlay 0 “laserex03_0.str”
draw all# TPCS version: 6
# key positions
key contours 1 at 3
key contours 2 at 1
key contours 3 at 6
key electrical at user 0.0443623, 0.0230126
key vectors at 6
key overlay at 2
key regions at 4
# various properties
log label 0
select 1
# xygraph flags
show points on
show lines on
# xygraph types
xygraph type 0 convert 0
xygraph yaxis scale linear
# xygraph x-axis
xygraph xaxis “anode current” linear
# xygraph y-axes
xygraph yaxis none
xygraph yaxis “Laser power per mirror, mode 1” linear
# xygraph group
xygraph group “None”
# annotation, titles
title main auto
title sub auto
# annotation, footers
footer right none
footer left none
# annotation, show
show xaxis on
show yaxis on
show grid off
show label xaxis on
show label yaxis on
# annotation, axes
range xaxis auto
range yaxis auto
label xaxis “anode current (A/~mm)”
# zoom
zoom from 0, 0 scale 1, 1
# user labels
# overlay level names
label overlay 0 “laserex03.log”
draw all#######################################################################
# GaAs/AlGaAs Stripe Geometry Laser #
# Lateral mode instability in AlGaAs/GaAs strip geometry laser diode #
# This input file demonstrates simulation of a the stripe geometry #
# GaAs/AlGaAs laser diode. Physically based frequency dependent #
# optical gain model is used in this example. #
# #
# Input File for EG-355 (Quantum Devices 3) #
# by Karol Kalna #
# (c) October 2020, Swansea University #
# based on (c) Silvaco Inc., 2019 #
#######################################################################

go atlas
#go atlas simflag=”-P 6″
TITLE: GaAs/AlGaAs Stripe Geometry Laser

#####################################################
# SECTION 1: Mesh Input
#####################################################
#
# All mesh dimensions in micro-meters [um].
mesh space.mult=1.0 diag.flip
# X-direction mesh definition.
x.mesh loc=-2.00 spac=0.5
x.mesh loc=0.00 spac=0.5
x.mesh loc=2 spac=0.2
x.mesh loc=7 spac=0.2
x.mesh loc=9.0 spac=0.5
x.mesh loc=11.00 spac=0.5
# Y-direction mesh definition.
y.mesh loc=0.0 spac=0.1
y.mesh loc=0.5 spac=0.1
y.mesh loc=0.55 spac=0.025
y.mesh loc=0.7 spac=0.015
y.mesh loc=0.75 spac=0.0075
y.mesh loc=0.85 spac=0.0075
y.mesh loc=0.9 spac=0.015
y.mesh loc=1.05 spac=0.025
y.mesh loc=1.1 spac=0.1
y.mesh loc=2.1 spac=0.2

####################################################
# SECTION 2: Structure/Mesh Specification
####################################################
# Define material regions
# AlGaAs
region num=1 material=AlGaAs x.min=-2 x.max=11.0
y.min=0.0 y.max=0.75 x.composition=0.5
# GaAs
region num=2 material=GaAs x.min=-2 x.max=11
y.min=0.75 y.max=0.85
# AlGaAs
region num=3 material=AlGaAs x.min=-2 x.max=11
y.min=0.85 y.max=2.1 x.composition=0.5

# Definition of the contact/electrodes
elec num=1 name=anode x.min=3.0 x.max=6.0 y.min=0.0 y.max=0.0
elec num=2 name=cathode bottom

# Define doping in the device.
doping uniform reg=1 p.type conc=1.e18
doping uniform reg=2 n.type conc=4.e15
doping uniform reg=3 n.type conc=4.e17

#####################################################
# SECTION 3: Material Models and Parameters
#####################################################
# Define material parameters: electron and hole Shockley-Read-Hall
# recombination lifetimes, the total band to band generation/recombination,
# bandgap difference between Material1 and Material2
material material=GaAs taun0=1.e-9 taup0=1.e-9 copt=1.5e-10
material material=AlGaAs taun0=1.e-9 taup0=1.e-9 copt=1.5e-10 align=0.6

# Select carrier mobility model and# TPCS version: 8
# various properties
log label 0
key opaque 0
mark frequency 0
mark overlay 0
graph width 0 1
graph width 1 1
graph width 2 1
graph width 3 1
graph width 4 4
graph width 5 1
sequence size 3
sequence width 2
log zero 1
sequence mark 0 0
sequence mark 1 1
sequence mark 2 2
sequence mark 3 3
sequence mark 4 4
sequence mark 5 5
# Functions
function 1 “” “”
function 2 “” “”
function 3 “” “”
function 4 “” “”
select 1
# plot flags, special
show mesh off
show edges on
show materials off
show contours on
show light off
show vectors off
show junctions off
show electrodes on
show threed off
draw 1
# contour set 1
contours 1 impurity “Light intensity for mode #1”
contours 1 materials all
contours 1 min auto
contours 1 max auto
contours 1 nsteps 33
contours 1 type fill
contours 1 outline off
contours 1 color 0
contours 1 apply
# contour set 2
contours 2 impurity “(unknown impurity)”
contours 2 materials all
contours 2 min auto
contours 2 max auto
contours 2 nsteps 33
contours 2 type fill
contours 2 outline off
contours 2 color 0
contours 2 apply
# contour set 3
contours 3 impurity “(unknown impurity)”
contours 3 materials all
contours 3 min auto
contours 3 max auto
contours 3 nsteps 33
contours 3 type fill
contours 3 outline off
contours 3 color 0
contours 3 apply
region param -101
# key positions
key contours 1 at 3
key contours 2 at 0
key contours 3 at 0
key electrical at 0
key vectors at 0
key overlay at 6
key regions at 0
key apply
# annotation, titles
title main auto
title sub auto
# annotation, footers
footer right none
footer left none
# annotation, show
show xaxis on
show yaxis on
show grid off
show label xaxis on
show label yaxis on
# annotation, axes
range xaxis auto
range yaxis auto
label xaxis “Microns”
label yaxis “Microns”
# zoom
zoom from 0, 0 scale 1, 1
# user labels
# overlay level names
label overlay 0 “laserex03_1.str”v ATLAS
# This file was created by ATLAS version 5.26.1.R on Sun Nov 20 19:27:18 2022.
#SSF 2.0 generic
##############################################################################
# Copyright (c) 1984 – 2018 #
# Silvaco Inc. All rights reserved #
# #
# This file format and the following Key are copyright Silvaco Inc. #
# You may not use, this format or key without reproducing this message in #
# full and obtaining express written permission from Silvaco Inc. #
# #
# To obtain such permission please contact: Silvaco Inc. #
# [email protected] #
# #
# KEY=SVC86hn7562asdx PROD=345 #
##############################################################################
j 4 1 2 94 95
k 2 2 0.667437753 1.42248214
c 1 -2 0 0
c 2 -2 0.1 0
c 3 -2 0.2 0
c 4 -2 0.3 0
c 5 -2 0.4 0
c 6 -2 0.5 0
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c 8 -2 0.55 0
c 9 -2 0.574168716748864 0
c 10 -2 0.596547158182998 0
c 11 -2 0.617267937288677 0
c 12 -2 0.636453843868009 0
c 13 -2 0.654218572182206 0
c 14 -2 0.670667394695352 0
c 15 -2 0.685897785911227 0
c 16 -2 0.7 0
c 17 -2 0.71420372026897 0
c 18 -2 0.725900901666944 0
c 19 -2 0.735533874582924 0
c 20 -2 0.743466911101966 0
c 21 -2 0.75 0
c 22 -2 0.757692307692308 0
c 23 -2 0.765384615384616 0
c 24 -2 0.773076923076923 0
c 25 -2 0.780769230769231 0
c 26 -2 0.788461538461539 0
c 27 -2 0.796153846153846 0
c 28 -2 0.803846153846154 0
c 29 -2 0.811538461538462 0
c 30 -2 0.81923076923077 0
c 31 -2 0.826923076923077 0
c 32 -2 0.834615384615385 0
c 33 -2 0.842307692307693 0
c 34 -2 0.85 0
c 35 -2 0.856533088898035 0
c 36 -2 0.864466125417076 0
c 37 -2 0.874099098333056 0
c 38 -2 0.88579627973103 0
c 39 -2 0.9 0
c 40 -2 0.914102214088773 0
c 41 -2 0.929332605304648 0
c 42 -2 0.945781427817794 0
c 43 -2 0.963546156131991 0
c 44 -2 0.982732062711323 0
c 45 -2 1.003452841817 0
c 46 -2 1.02583128325114 0
c 47 -2 1.05 0
c 48 -2 1.075 0
c 49 -2 1.1 0
c 50 -2 1.19760307571216 0
c 51 -2 1.30740653588834 0
c 52 -2 1.43093542858653 0
c 53 -2 1.56990543287201 0
c 54 -2 1.72624668769317 0
c 55 -2 1.90213059936697 0
c 56 -2 2.1 0
c 57 -1.5 0 0
c 58 -1.5 0.1 0
c 59 -1.5 0.2 0
c 60 -1.5 0.3 0
c 61 -1.5 0.4 0
c 62 -1.5 0.5 0
c 63 -1.5 0.525 0
c 64 -1.5 0.55 0
c 65 -1.5 0.574168716748864 0
c 66 -1.5 0.596547158182998 0
c 67 -1.5 0.617267937288677 0
c 68 -1.5 0.636453843868009 0
c 69 -1.5 0.654218572182206 0
c 70 -1.5 0.670667394695352 0
c 71 -1.5 0.685897785911227 0
c 72 -1.5 0.7 0
c 73 -1.5 0.71420372026897 0
c 74 -1.5 0.725900901666944 0
c 75 -1.5 0.735533874582924 0
c 76 -1.5 0.743466911101966 0
c 77 -1.5 0.75 0
c 78 -1.5




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